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Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple) occurred most frequently (17%); others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%), Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%), Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10%) and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%). The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%), retaining walls (5%), footpaths (4%), roads (3%) and walls (3%). Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) caused the greatest damage (59%) expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationships of tree diameters at breast height (DBH (cm); represented by circles), average distances of trees away from walls, and the proportion of trees within 10 m to these structures subjected to moderate to severe damage. Note: x(y/z), where x represents DBH and z indicates the number of the tree species out of which y trees caused damage.
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fig0040: Relationships of tree diameters at breast height (DBH (cm); represented by circles), average distances of trees away from walls, and the proportion of trees within 10 m to these structures subjected to moderate to severe damage. Note: x(y/z), where x represents DBH and z indicates the number of the tree species out of which y trees caused damage.

Mentions: Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8 show the relationship of tree DBH, average distance of trees away from the structures, and the proportion of trees close to structures that caused moderate to severe damage. Note that only moderate and severe damage was considered, considering that the reason for light damage is often unclear. Apart from tree-related damage, other reasons for damage might be as important but only further destructive tests on site might reveal the main reason(s) for damage.


Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates
Relationships of tree diameters at breast height (DBH (cm); represented by circles), average distances of trees away from walls, and the proportion of trees within 10 m to these structures subjected to moderate to severe damage. Note: x(y/z), where x represents DBH and z indicates the number of the tree species out of which y trees caused damage.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037243&req=5

fig0040: Relationships of tree diameters at breast height (DBH (cm); represented by circles), average distances of trees away from walls, and the proportion of trees within 10 m to these structures subjected to moderate to severe damage. Note: x(y/z), where x represents DBH and z indicates the number of the tree species out of which y trees caused damage.
Mentions: Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8 show the relationship of tree DBH, average distance of trees away from the structures, and the proportion of trees close to structures that caused moderate to severe damage. Note that only moderate and severe damage was considered, considering that the reason for light damage is often unclear. Apart from tree-related damage, other reasons for damage might be as important but only further destructive tests on site might reveal the main reason(s) for damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple) occurred most frequently (17%); others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%), Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%), Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10%) and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%). The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%), retaining walls (5%), footpaths (4%), roads (3%) and walls (3%). Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut) caused the greatest damage (59%) expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus