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Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants ’ Developmental Processes

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ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known.

No MeSH data available.


Model depicting the role of ROS, Ca2+ and pH in tip growth of root/pollen cells. Cell uptakes Ca2+ from its surrounding. To maintain the low levels of cytCa2+, ACAs transport Ca2+ back to the apoplast. Besides this, the H+/Ca2+ antiporter translocates Ca2+ back to the apoplast and, at the same time, imports H+ into the cytoplasm. The cytCa2+ activates NOXC and NOXH/NOXJ to produce apoROS in root hairs and pollen tubes, respectively. NOX produces apoplastic , which is dismutated by SOD to H2O2. Also, apoH2O2 and O2 generate •OH (in the hydroxylic cycle) which catalyzes the nonenzymatic cleavage of polysaccharides, thereby allowing tip growth. Box on right side showing that extracellular ROS, pH as well as cytCa2+ are coupled to growth oscillations. (Modified after Monshausen et al., 2009; Mangano et al., 2016).
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Figure 4: Model depicting the role of ROS, Ca2+ and pH in tip growth of root/pollen cells. Cell uptakes Ca2+ from its surrounding. To maintain the low levels of cytCa2+, ACAs transport Ca2+ back to the apoplast. Besides this, the H+/Ca2+ antiporter translocates Ca2+ back to the apoplast and, at the same time, imports H+ into the cytoplasm. The cytCa2+ activates NOXC and NOXH/NOXJ to produce apoROS in root hairs and pollen tubes, respectively. NOX produces apoplastic , which is dismutated by SOD to H2O2. Also, apoH2O2 and O2 generate •OH (in the hydroxylic cycle) which catalyzes the nonenzymatic cleavage of polysaccharides, thereby allowing tip growth. Box on right side showing that extracellular ROS, pH as well as cytCa2+ are coupled to growth oscillations. (Modified after Monshausen et al., 2009; Mangano et al., 2016).

Mentions: If we are talking about ROS signaling, it is noteworthy that changes in extracellular pH correlate with the oscillations in growth, which permit the alteration of tip growth in root hairs of Arabidopsis (Monshausen et al., 2007). The stiffening of the cell wall is carried out by both ROS and increased pH, which make cell wall resistant to turgor pressure. In the growing tip, oscillation of Ca2+ gradients is followed by alkalinization peaks in the apoplast along with the constitutive generation across the subapical part of the tip (Monshausen et al., 2009; Swanson and Gilroy, 2010). An oscillatory component of extracellular pH at the tip of pollen tubes has been reported by Messerli and Robinson (2007), that changes the phase by producing ROS and increases the growth by increasing the Ca2+ accumulation (Messerli and Robinson, 2007). A similar series of events ROS, pH, Ca2+, and growth have also been reported in root hair tips (Monshausen et al., 2007). These findings put forward that one factor (either ROS or wall pH) compensate with at wall dynamics as well as in controlling the cytosolic activities needed to maintain the growth (Figure 4).


Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants ’ Developmental Processes
Model depicting the role of ROS, Ca2+ and pH in tip growth of root/pollen cells. Cell uptakes Ca2+ from its surrounding. To maintain the low levels of cytCa2+, ACAs transport Ca2+ back to the apoplast. Besides this, the H+/Ca2+ antiporter translocates Ca2+ back to the apoplast and, at the same time, imports H+ into the cytoplasm. The cytCa2+ activates NOXC and NOXH/NOXJ to produce apoROS in root hairs and pollen tubes, respectively. NOX produces apoplastic , which is dismutated by SOD to H2O2. Also, apoH2O2 and O2 generate •OH (in the hydroxylic cycle) which catalyzes the nonenzymatic cleavage of polysaccharides, thereby allowing tip growth. Box on right side showing that extracellular ROS, pH as well as cytCa2+ are coupled to growth oscillations. (Modified after Monshausen et al., 2009; Mangano et al., 2016).
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Figure 4: Model depicting the role of ROS, Ca2+ and pH in tip growth of root/pollen cells. Cell uptakes Ca2+ from its surrounding. To maintain the low levels of cytCa2+, ACAs transport Ca2+ back to the apoplast. Besides this, the H+/Ca2+ antiporter translocates Ca2+ back to the apoplast and, at the same time, imports H+ into the cytoplasm. The cytCa2+ activates NOXC and NOXH/NOXJ to produce apoROS in root hairs and pollen tubes, respectively. NOX produces apoplastic , which is dismutated by SOD to H2O2. Also, apoH2O2 and O2 generate •OH (in the hydroxylic cycle) which catalyzes the nonenzymatic cleavage of polysaccharides, thereby allowing tip growth. Box on right side showing that extracellular ROS, pH as well as cytCa2+ are coupled to growth oscillations. (Modified after Monshausen et al., 2009; Mangano et al., 2016).
Mentions: If we are talking about ROS signaling, it is noteworthy that changes in extracellular pH correlate with the oscillations in growth, which permit the alteration of tip growth in root hairs of Arabidopsis (Monshausen et al., 2007). The stiffening of the cell wall is carried out by both ROS and increased pH, which make cell wall resistant to turgor pressure. In the growing tip, oscillation of Ca2+ gradients is followed by alkalinization peaks in the apoplast along with the constitutive generation across the subapical part of the tip (Monshausen et al., 2009; Swanson and Gilroy, 2010). An oscillatory component of extracellular pH at the tip of pollen tubes has been reported by Messerli and Robinson (2007), that changes the phase by producing ROS and increases the growth by increasing the Ca2+ accumulation (Messerli and Robinson, 2007). A similar series of events ROS, pH, Ca2+, and growth have also been reported in root hair tips (Monshausen et al., 2007). These findings put forward that one factor (either ROS or wall pH) compensate with at wall dynamics as well as in controlling the cytosolic activities needed to maintain the growth (Figure 4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known.

No MeSH data available.