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Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol-priming reinstatement of CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 7–9/group). Significant difference ##p < 0.01 was compared between pre-reinstatement and post-reinstatement; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
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Figure 4: Effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol-priming reinstatement of CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 7–9/group). Significant difference ##p < 0.01 was compared between pre-reinstatement and post-reinstatement; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.

Mentions: The effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol priming-induced CPP is shown in Figure 4. ANOVA results revealed a significant effect of Group [F(5,75) = 7.86; P < 0.0001], Trial [F(1,75) = 12.7; P = 0.0006], and a Group × Trial interaction [F(5,75) = 3.76; P = 0.0043]. Bonferroni test revealed that the conditioning score of vehicle-treated group on the reinstatement day after a priming low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased when compared with the pre-reinstatement. Indeed, Bonferroni comparisons indicated no significant effect of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) on the reinstatement produced by the ethanol priming injection. Moreover, MMC and ACAM did not alleviate the conditioning score when compared with the vehicle control group.


Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice
Effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol-priming reinstatement of CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 7–9/group). Significant difference ##p < 0.01 was compared between pre-reinstatement and post-reinstatement; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037239&req=5

Figure 4: Effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol-priming reinstatement of CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 7–9/group). Significant difference ##p < 0.01 was compared between pre-reinstatement and post-reinstatement; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
Mentions: The effect of MMC and ACAM on a low dose ethanol priming-induced CPP is shown in Figure 4. ANOVA results revealed a significant effect of Group [F(5,75) = 7.86; P < 0.0001], Trial [F(1,75) = 12.7; P = 0.0006], and a Group × Trial interaction [F(5,75) = 3.76; P = 0.0043]. Bonferroni test revealed that the conditioning score of vehicle-treated group on the reinstatement day after a priming low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased when compared with the pre-reinstatement. Indeed, Bonferroni comparisons indicated no significant effect of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) on the reinstatement produced by the ethanol priming injection. Moreover, MMC and ACAM did not alleviate the conditioning score when compared with the vehicle control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.