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Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of MMC and ACAM on the expression of ethanol CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 9/group). Significant difference #P < 0.05 was compared between preconditioning and postconditioning; ∗∗p < 0.01 was compared with the vehicle control group; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
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Figure 2: Effect of MMC and ACAM on the expression of ethanol CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 9/group). Significant difference #P < 0.05 was compared between preconditioning and postconditioning; ∗∗p < 0.01 was compared with the vehicle control group; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.

Mentions: The effect of MMC and ACAM on expression of ethanol-induced CPP is represented in Figure 2. ANOVA results revealed a significant effect of Group [F(5,96) = 2.76; P < 0.05] and the interaction (Group × Trial) [F(5,96) = 2.58; P < 0.05]. Bonferroni test revealed that the conditioning score of vehicle-treated group on postconditioning day was significantly (p < 0.05) increased when compared with the preconditioning day. However, the conditioning score on the postconditioning day was not altered in MMC (3 and 5 g/kg p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) treated groups. Interestingly, MMC (3 and 5 g/kg p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the conditioning score when compared with the vehicle control group which implies the anticraving effect of MMC and ACAM.


Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice
Effect of MMC and ACAM on the expression of ethanol CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 9/group). Significant difference #P < 0.05 was compared between preconditioning and postconditioning; ∗∗p < 0.01 was compared with the vehicle control group; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037239&req=5

Figure 2: Effect of MMC and ACAM on the expression of ethanol CPP in mice. Data are expressed as the mean difference between the times spent in the compartment paired with ethanol and the times spent in the compartment paired with saline (n = 9/group). Significant difference #P < 0.05 was compared between preconditioning and postconditioning; ∗∗p < 0.01 was compared with the vehicle control group; when not indicated, the differences were not statistically significant.
Mentions: The effect of MMC and ACAM on expression of ethanol-induced CPP is represented in Figure 2. ANOVA results revealed a significant effect of Group [F(5,96) = 2.76; P < 0.05] and the interaction (Group × Trial) [F(5,96) = 2.58; P < 0.05]. Bonferroni test revealed that the conditioning score of vehicle-treated group on postconditioning day was significantly (p < 0.05) increased when compared with the preconditioning day. However, the conditioning score on the postconditioning day was not altered in MMC (3 and 5 g/kg p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) treated groups. Interestingly, MMC (3 and 5 g/kg p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the conditioning score when compared with the vehicle control group which implies the anticraving effect of MMC and ACAM.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.