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Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental timeline.
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Figure 1: Experimental timeline.

Mentions: The CPP methodology was divided into six distinct phases such as habituation, preconditioning/baseline, conditioning/ acquisition, postconditioning, extinction, and reinstatement, shown in Figure 1. All tests were conducted during the same time period of each day (0800–1500 h). The time schedule for the CPP test was modified to 12-day durations based on our pilot study in which we found that at least six injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) were required to induce a significant CPP in ICR mice. Therefore, we followed this protocol and the same procedure was adopted in our recent published report in which we investigated the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR mice using the CPP test (Pandy and Khan, 2016).


Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice
Experimental timeline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037239&req=5

Figure 1: Experimental timeline.
Mentions: The CPP methodology was divided into six distinct phases such as habituation, preconditioning/baseline, conditioning/ acquisition, postconditioning, extinction, and reinstatement, shown in Figure 1. All tests were conducted during the same time period of each day (0800–1500 h). The time schedule for the CPP test was modified to 12-day durations based on our pilot study in which we found that at least six injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) were required to induce a significant CPP in ICR mice. Therefore, we followed this protocol and the same procedure was adopted in our recent published report in which we investigated the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR mice using the CPP test (Pandy and Khan, 2016).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

No MeSH data available.