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Volatiles Emitted from Maize Ears Simultaneously Infected with Two Fusarium Species Mirror the Most Competitive Fungal Pathogen

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and the concentration of the oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e., sesquiterpenoids) and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cluster tree based on volatile infection biomarkers of maize ears infected with one or two Fusarium species. Bootstrap values >60% are indicated (N = 10,000 bootstraps) on the tree along with disease index (color coded) for each individual samples (maize ears).
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Figure 2: Cluster tree based on volatile infection biomarkers of maize ears infected with one or two Fusarium species. Bootstrap values >60% are indicated (N = 10,000 bootstraps) on the tree along with disease index (color coded) for each individual samples (maize ears).

Mentions: In order to investigate a possible correlation between volatile profiles and disease severity, we applied cluster analysis to the volatile biomarkers of hybrid and dwarf maize and displayed the resulting analysis along with disease severity for each treatment and replicate. Results are shown in (Figure 2) for hybrid maize and dwarf maize. Considering clusters with boot-strap values larger than 60%, two major clusters are visible for both maize varieties. For hybrid maize, one cluster includes all samples infected with FV1, either alone or with FG1 (FG1+FV1; Figure 2, cluster I), while the other cluster includes all replicates infected with FG1 (Figure 2, cluster II). For dwarf maize, one cluster includes all replicates infected with FV3 alone, four of five replicates simultaneously infected with FG4+FV3 and one replicate infected with FG4 (Figure 2, cluster III), the other cluster includes four of five replicates infected with FG4 and one replicate simultaneously infected with FG4+FV3 (Figure 2, cluster IV). Disease index depicted on the right side of the diagrams highlight that the clustering is dependent on disease severity for both hybrid and dwarf maize (Figure 2).


Volatiles Emitted from Maize Ears Simultaneously Infected with Two Fusarium Species Mirror the Most Competitive Fungal Pathogen
Cluster tree based on volatile infection biomarkers of maize ears infected with one or two Fusarium species. Bootstrap values >60% are indicated (N = 10,000 bootstraps) on the tree along with disease index (color coded) for each individual samples (maize ears).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037238&req=5

Figure 2: Cluster tree based on volatile infection biomarkers of maize ears infected with one or two Fusarium species. Bootstrap values >60% are indicated (N = 10,000 bootstraps) on the tree along with disease index (color coded) for each individual samples (maize ears).
Mentions: In order to investigate a possible correlation between volatile profiles and disease severity, we applied cluster analysis to the volatile biomarkers of hybrid and dwarf maize and displayed the resulting analysis along with disease severity for each treatment and replicate. Results are shown in (Figure 2) for hybrid maize and dwarf maize. Considering clusters with boot-strap values larger than 60%, two major clusters are visible for both maize varieties. For hybrid maize, one cluster includes all samples infected with FV1, either alone or with FG1 (FG1+FV1; Figure 2, cluster I), while the other cluster includes all replicates infected with FG1 (Figure 2, cluster II). For dwarf maize, one cluster includes all replicates infected with FV3 alone, four of five replicates simultaneously infected with FG4+FV3 and one replicate infected with FG4 (Figure 2, cluster III), the other cluster includes four of five replicates infected with FG4 and one replicate simultaneously infected with FG4+FV3 (Figure 2, cluster IV). Disease index depicted on the right side of the diagrams highlight that the clustering is dependent on disease severity for both hybrid and dwarf maize (Figure 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and the concentration of the oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e., sesquiterpenoids) and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus