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The Motivational Hierarchy between the Personal Self and Close Others in the Chinese Brain: an ERP Study

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ABSTRACT

People base their decisions not only on their own self-interest but also on the interests of close others. Generally, the personal self has primacy in the motivational hierarchy in the Western culture. A recent study found that friends have the same motivational hierarchy as the personal self in the Eastern collectivist culture. Remaining unknown is whether the motivational hierarchy of the personal self and close others can be manifested in the collectivist brain. In the present study, we asked participants to gamble for the personal self, close others (i.e., mother, father, and close friend), and strangers. The positive-going deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to positive feedback showed the following pattern: personal self = mother = father > friend > stranger. In the loss condition, no significant beneficiary effect was observed. The present results indicate that the personal self and parents are intertwined in the motivational system in the Chinese undergraduate student brain, supporting the view that the personal self and parents have the same motivational primacy at the electrocortical level.

No MeSH data available.


Grand average FRN (feedback-related negativity) waveforms waves collapsed over reward magnitudes at three midline electrodes (Fz, FCz, and Cz) post-onset of the feedback stimuli. The gray shaded areas indicate the FRN analysis window (220–320 ms) for average amplitudes.
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Figure 2: Grand average FRN (feedback-related negativity) waveforms waves collapsed over reward magnitudes at three midline electrodes (Fz, FCz, and Cz) post-onset of the feedback stimuli. The gray shaded areas indicate the FRN analysis window (220–320 ms) for average amplitudes.

Mentions: For FRN (Figure 2), the main effect of electrode was significant [F(2,40) = 18.99, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.487], with a largest response at Cz site (M = 4.40 μV, SE = 0.45). The main effect of beneficiary was significant [F(4,80) = 4.85, p = 0.013, η2 = 0.195], with a largest response when gamble for self (M = 4.12 μV, SE = 0.46). The main effect of feedback valence was significant [F(1,20) = 117.27, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.85], such that losses evoked more negative response after (M = 2.75 μV, SE = 0.30) than after gains (M = 4.89 μV, SE = 0.44). The interaction between feedback valence and electrode was significant, [F(2,40) = 5.15, p = 0.018, η2 = 0.25]. The interaction between feedback valence and beneficiary was also significant, [F(4,80) = 2.93, p = 0.028, η2= 0.18]. The significant interaction was mainly due to the very small difference between Cz (5.42 μV) and FCz (5.58 μV; p = 0.528) in win condition and the difference between Cz (3.38 μV) and FCz (2.96 μV) was marginally significant in loss condition (p = 0.078). To further analyze the interaction between beneficiary and outcome valence, pair-wise analyses (Least Significant Difference test) revealed that there was no significant difference among the self and close others in the loss condition. In the win condition, the pair-wise analysis revealed the self (M = 5.27, SE = 0.52) evoked a reward positivity that was comparable to mother (M = 5.26, SE = 0.54) and father (M = 5.07, SE = 0.47; p > 0.1). The self, mother, and father evoked a larger reward positivity than friends (M = 4.62, SE = 0.40) and strangers (M = 4.24, SE = 0.37; ps < 0.05). Friends also evoked a larger reward positivity than strangers (p = 0.03) (see Table 1). The three-way interaction was not significant (p > 0.05).


The Motivational Hierarchy between the Personal Self and Close Others in the Chinese Brain: an ERP Study
Grand average FRN (feedback-related negativity) waveforms waves collapsed over reward magnitudes at three midline electrodes (Fz, FCz, and Cz) post-onset of the feedback stimuli. The gray shaded areas indicate the FRN analysis window (220–320 ms) for average amplitudes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037196&req=5

Figure 2: Grand average FRN (feedback-related negativity) waveforms waves collapsed over reward magnitudes at three midline electrodes (Fz, FCz, and Cz) post-onset of the feedback stimuli. The gray shaded areas indicate the FRN analysis window (220–320 ms) for average amplitudes.
Mentions: For FRN (Figure 2), the main effect of electrode was significant [F(2,40) = 18.99, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.487], with a largest response at Cz site (M = 4.40 μV, SE = 0.45). The main effect of beneficiary was significant [F(4,80) = 4.85, p = 0.013, η2 = 0.195], with a largest response when gamble for self (M = 4.12 μV, SE = 0.46). The main effect of feedback valence was significant [F(1,20) = 117.27, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.85], such that losses evoked more negative response after (M = 2.75 μV, SE = 0.30) than after gains (M = 4.89 μV, SE = 0.44). The interaction between feedback valence and electrode was significant, [F(2,40) = 5.15, p = 0.018, η2 = 0.25]. The interaction between feedback valence and beneficiary was also significant, [F(4,80) = 2.93, p = 0.028, η2= 0.18]. The significant interaction was mainly due to the very small difference between Cz (5.42 μV) and FCz (5.58 μV; p = 0.528) in win condition and the difference between Cz (3.38 μV) and FCz (2.96 μV) was marginally significant in loss condition (p = 0.078). To further analyze the interaction between beneficiary and outcome valence, pair-wise analyses (Least Significant Difference test) revealed that there was no significant difference among the self and close others in the loss condition. In the win condition, the pair-wise analysis revealed the self (M = 5.27, SE = 0.52) evoked a reward positivity that was comparable to mother (M = 5.26, SE = 0.54) and father (M = 5.07, SE = 0.47; p > 0.1). The self, mother, and father evoked a larger reward positivity than friends (M = 4.62, SE = 0.40) and strangers (M = 4.24, SE = 0.37; ps < 0.05). Friends also evoked a larger reward positivity than strangers (p = 0.03) (see Table 1). The three-way interaction was not significant (p > 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

People base their decisions not only on their own self-interest but also on the interests of close others. Generally, the personal self has primacy in the motivational hierarchy in the Western culture. A recent study found that friends have the same motivational hierarchy as the personal self in the Eastern collectivist culture. Remaining unknown is whether the motivational hierarchy of the personal self and close others can be manifested in the collectivist brain. In the present study, we asked participants to gamble for the personal self, close others (i.e., mother, father, and close friend), and strangers. The positive-going deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to positive feedback showed the following pattern: personal self = mother = father &gt; friend &gt; stranger. In the loss condition, no significant beneficiary effect was observed. The present results indicate that the personal self and parents are intertwined in the motivational system in the Chinese undergraduate student brain, supporting the view that the personal self and parents have the same motivational primacy at the electrocortical level.

No MeSH data available.