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Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) Expression in Hepatic Malfunction and Therapy

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs. The significance of this 25-kDa lipocalin molecule has been impressively increased during the last years. Data from several studies indicate the role of LCN2 in physiological conditions as well as in response to cellular stress and injury. LCN2 in the liver shows a protective role in acute and chronic injury models where its expression is highly elevated. Moreover, LCN2 expression is being considered as a potential strong biomarker for pathological conditions, including rheumatic diseases, cancer in human organs, hepatic steatosis, hepatic damage, and inflammation. In this review, we summarize experimental and clinical findings linking LCN2 to the pathogenesis of liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


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Elevated hepatic LCN2 expression is a physiological indicator of hepatic inflammation. After acute inflammatory stimulus (1), the liver synthesizes and secretes large quantities of LCN2 (2). This physiological response indicates that the liver is inflamed and needs help (3). As a consequence of the emitted “help me” signal, inflammatory blood cells that are necessary to begin the repair are recruited (4) and infiltrate the liver (5). The infiltrating cell populations help to destroy and clear infectious particles (6) and are helpful in restoring tissue homeostasis (7). For more details about this hypothesis are given elsewhere (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).
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Figure 5: Elevated hepatic LCN2 expression is a physiological indicator of hepatic inflammation. After acute inflammatory stimulus (1), the liver synthesizes and secretes large quantities of LCN2 (2). This physiological response indicates that the liver is inflamed and needs help (3). As a consequence of the emitted “help me” signal, inflammatory blood cells that are necessary to begin the repair are recruited (4) and infiltrate the liver (5). The infiltrating cell populations help to destroy and clear infectious particles (6) and are helpful in restoring tissue homeostasis (7). For more details about this hypothesis are given elsewhere (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).

Mentions: Moreover, our study has shown that LCN2 is able to directly influence the expression of this lipid-droplet protein that is essential in maintaining the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis and also of fundamental importance in fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, Semba and colleagues found in the Fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mice strain that are genetically programmed to develop NASH that LCN2 is directly linked to the pathogenesis of NASH. In addition, this study showed that LCN2 is primarily expressed by hepatocytes present in inflammatory cell clusters (Semba et al., 2013). Complementary data have suggested that the injury-induced upregulation of LCN2 is a kind of intrinsic “help me” signal (Figure 5) that might be relevant to recruit inflammatory cells into the injured tissue (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).


Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) Expression in Hepatic Malfunction and Therapy
Elevated hepatic LCN2 expression is a physiological indicator of hepatic inflammation. After acute inflammatory stimulus (1), the liver synthesizes and secretes large quantities of LCN2 (2). This physiological response indicates that the liver is inflamed and needs help (3). As a consequence of the emitted “help me” signal, inflammatory blood cells that are necessary to begin the repair are recruited (4) and infiltrate the liver (5). The infiltrating cell populations help to destroy and clear infectious particles (6) and are helpful in restoring tissue homeostasis (7). For more details about this hypothesis are given elsewhere (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037186&req=5

Figure 5: Elevated hepatic LCN2 expression is a physiological indicator of hepatic inflammation. After acute inflammatory stimulus (1), the liver synthesizes and secretes large quantities of LCN2 (2). This physiological response indicates that the liver is inflamed and needs help (3). As a consequence of the emitted “help me” signal, inflammatory blood cells that are necessary to begin the repair are recruited (4) and infiltrate the liver (5). The infiltrating cell populations help to destroy and clear infectious particles (6) and are helpful in restoring tissue homeostasis (7). For more details about this hypothesis are given elsewhere (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).
Mentions: Moreover, our study has shown that LCN2 is able to directly influence the expression of this lipid-droplet protein that is essential in maintaining the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis and also of fundamental importance in fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, Semba and colleagues found in the Fatty liver Shionogi (FLS) mice strain that are genetically programmed to develop NASH that LCN2 is directly linked to the pathogenesis of NASH. In addition, this study showed that LCN2 is primarily expressed by hepatocytes present in inflammatory cell clusters (Semba et al., 2013). Complementary data have suggested that the injury-induced upregulation of LCN2 is a kind of intrinsic “help me” signal (Figure 5) that might be relevant to recruit inflammatory cells into the injured tissue (Asimakopoulou et al., 2016).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein that belongs to the Lipocalins, a group of transporters of small lipophilic molecules such as steroids, lipopolysaccharides, iron, and fatty acids in circulation. Two decades after its discovery and after a high variety of published findings, LCN2's altered expression has been assigned to critical roles in several pathological organ conditions, including liver injury and steatosis, renal damage, brain injury, cardiomyopathies, muscle-skeletal disorders, lung infection, and cancer in several organs. The significance of this 25-kDa lipocalin molecule has been impressively increased during the last years. Data from several studies indicate the role of LCN2 in physiological conditions as well as in response to cellular stress and injury. LCN2 in the liver shows a protective role in acute and chronic injury models where its expression is highly elevated. Moreover, LCN2 expression is being considered as a potential strong biomarker for pathological conditions, including rheumatic diseases, cancer in human organs, hepatic steatosis, hepatic damage, and inflammation. In this review, we summarize experimental and clinical findings linking LCN2 to the pathogenesis of liver disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus