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Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

No MeSH data available.


Graphic representation of the standard scores in learning strategies and goal orientation measures for each group.
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Figure 1: Graphic representation of the standard scores in learning strategies and goal orientation measures for each group.

Mentions: The punctuations of the three groups are represented in Figure 1. To facilitate the comparison, all of the variables were converted into standard punctuations. The overachieving group had higher scores for all of the variables, with the exception of performance goals and reinforcement goals, for which they had lower punctuations, whereas the underachieving group had the opposite profile, with lower punctuations in all of the variables with the exception of performance goals and reinforcement goals, for which they had higher punctuations. The normal-achieving group had a flat profile with punctuations between groups 1 and 3 for all of the variables.


Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students
Graphic representation of the standard scores in learning strategies and goal orientation measures for each group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037185&req=5

Figure 1: Graphic representation of the standard scores in learning strategies and goal orientation measures for each group.
Mentions: The punctuations of the three groups are represented in Figure 1. To facilitate the comparison, all of the variables were converted into standard punctuations. The overachieving group had higher scores for all of the variables, with the exception of performance goals and reinforcement goals, for which they had lower punctuations, whereas the underachieving group had the opposite profile, with lower punctuations in all of the variables with the exception of performance goals and reinforcement goals, for which they had higher punctuations. The normal-achieving group had a flat profile with punctuations between groups 1 and 3 for all of the variables.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

No MeSH data available.