Limits...
Analytical assessment of the intense heat load of whipping cream, coffee cream, and condensed milk at retail in Austria and Germany

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Time temperature integrators (TTIs) are useful tools in estimating the heat load applied on differently processed dairy products. The objective of this study was to analyze and assess three TTIs – lactulose, furosine, and acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) – in 70 high heated dairy products at retail in Austria and Germany comprising whipping cream, coffee cream/milk, and condensed milk products. While β-Lg was not appropriate to evaluate the heat load of these products, furosine and especially lactulose increased with rising intensity of heat treatment, and are appropriate to distinguish between several heating categories analyzed. Pasteurized (n = 8) and “heat treated” (n = 5) whipping cream samples showed lowest furosine (48 ± 14/ 45 ± 19 mg.100 g−1 protein) and low lactulose (29 ± 10/57 ± 28 mg.L−1) concentrations, followed by ESL whipping cream (n = 10), ESL coffee cream (n = 1), and UHT whipping cream (n = 10) (furosine = 72 ± 37/71/161 ± 30 mg.100 g−1 protein; lactulose = 56 ± 41/161/195 ± 39 mg.L−1), respectively. Sterilized condensed milk samples (n = 14) showed the highest concentrations of both TTIs and could be clearly separated from UHT treated samples (n = 5) (furosine = 491 ± 196/216 ± 46 mg.100 g−1 protein; lactulose = 1997 ± 658/409 ± 161 mg.L−1), whereas the so-called heat-treated samples (n = 9) had a heat load in between showing an extreme range of variation for both TTIs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heat load indicators furosine and lactulose (mean value ± SD) of whipping cream samples (group I, left side), and coffee milk/cream and condensed milk (group II, right side) according to their heat load category. Lactose-free samples and abnormally high values were not included. Different superscripts indicate differing least square means (p < 0.05) for furosine (abc) or lactulose (wxyz), respectively. Data for pasteurized and ESL whipping cream samples of group I have been already reported recently (Boitz and Mayer 2015)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037155&req=5

Fig3: Heat load indicators furosine and lactulose (mean value ± SD) of whipping cream samples (group I, left side), and coffee milk/cream and condensed milk (group II, right side) according to their heat load category. Lactose-free samples and abnormally high values were not included. Different superscripts indicate differing least square means (p < 0.05) for furosine (abc) or lactulose (wxyz), respectively. Data for pasteurized and ESL whipping cream samples of group I have been already reported recently (Boitz and Mayer 2015)

Mentions: Figure 3 shows mean values and standard deviations of the analyzed furosine and lactulose concentrations for pasteurized, ESL, “heat treated”, and UHT whipping cream (group I, left side) as well as for ESL, “heat treated”, UHT, and sterilized coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (group II, right side), respectively. Lowest furosine concentrations were found in pasteurized whipping cream samples (47.8 ± 14.0 mg.100 g−1 protein), and increasing concentrations were detected with rising processing temperatures in ESL samples (72.2 ± 36.6 mg.100 g−1 protein) and UHT treated samples (161.3 ± 30.2 mg.100 g−1 protein), respectively. German whipping cream samples labeled as “heat treated” showed quite similar furosine concentrations (45.2 ± 19.3 mg.100 g−1 protein) as pasteurized whipping cream samples, but lower values than ESL whipping cream samples. Referring to group II and when comparing mean values of “heat treated” coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (368.5 ± 248.9 mg.100 g−1 protein) to UHT samples (216.2 ± 46.3 mg.100 g−1 protein), “heat treated” samples showed higher furosine concentrations than UHT coffee cream/milk samples. However, “heat treated” coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples showed more than twice the amount of UHT whipping cream samples of group I (161.3 ± 30.2 mg.100 g−1 protein). Interestingly, “heat treated” samples of group II revealed a wide standard deviation of furosine concentrations (368.5 ± 248.9 mg.100 g−1 protein). Lowest furosine amount was found in the single ESL sample analyzed with 70.9 mg.100 g−1 protein, and highest amounts were found in sterilized coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (490.6 ± 196.3 mg.100 g−1 protein). As seen in Fig. 3 and confirmed by statistical analysis, sterilized coffee cream/milk samples differed significantly from all other groups (p < 0.001), with exception of “heat treated” coffee cream/milk samples. These samples could be clearly distinguished from pasteurized, “heat treated,” and ESL whipping cream samples (p < 0.002), respectively.Fig. 3


Analytical assessment of the intense heat load of whipping cream, coffee cream, and condensed milk at retail in Austria and Germany
Heat load indicators furosine and lactulose (mean value ± SD) of whipping cream samples (group I, left side), and coffee milk/cream and condensed milk (group II, right side) according to their heat load category. Lactose-free samples and abnormally high values were not included. Different superscripts indicate differing least square means (p < 0.05) for furosine (abc) or lactulose (wxyz), respectively. Data for pasteurized and ESL whipping cream samples of group I have been already reported recently (Boitz and Mayer 2015)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037155&req=5

Fig3: Heat load indicators furosine and lactulose (mean value ± SD) of whipping cream samples (group I, left side), and coffee milk/cream and condensed milk (group II, right side) according to their heat load category. Lactose-free samples and abnormally high values were not included. Different superscripts indicate differing least square means (p < 0.05) for furosine (abc) or lactulose (wxyz), respectively. Data for pasteurized and ESL whipping cream samples of group I have been already reported recently (Boitz and Mayer 2015)
Mentions: Figure 3 shows mean values and standard deviations of the analyzed furosine and lactulose concentrations for pasteurized, ESL, “heat treated”, and UHT whipping cream (group I, left side) as well as for ESL, “heat treated”, UHT, and sterilized coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (group II, right side), respectively. Lowest furosine concentrations were found in pasteurized whipping cream samples (47.8 ± 14.0 mg.100 g−1 protein), and increasing concentrations were detected with rising processing temperatures in ESL samples (72.2 ± 36.6 mg.100 g−1 protein) and UHT treated samples (161.3 ± 30.2 mg.100 g−1 protein), respectively. German whipping cream samples labeled as “heat treated” showed quite similar furosine concentrations (45.2 ± 19.3 mg.100 g−1 protein) as pasteurized whipping cream samples, but lower values than ESL whipping cream samples. Referring to group II and when comparing mean values of “heat treated” coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (368.5 ± 248.9 mg.100 g−1 protein) to UHT samples (216.2 ± 46.3 mg.100 g−1 protein), “heat treated” samples showed higher furosine concentrations than UHT coffee cream/milk samples. However, “heat treated” coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples showed more than twice the amount of UHT whipping cream samples of group I (161.3 ± 30.2 mg.100 g−1 protein). Interestingly, “heat treated” samples of group II revealed a wide standard deviation of furosine concentrations (368.5 ± 248.9 mg.100 g−1 protein). Lowest furosine amount was found in the single ESL sample analyzed with 70.9 mg.100 g−1 protein, and highest amounts were found in sterilized coffee cream/milk and condensed milk samples (490.6 ± 196.3 mg.100 g−1 protein). As seen in Fig. 3 and confirmed by statistical analysis, sterilized coffee cream/milk samples differed significantly from all other groups (p < 0.001), with exception of “heat treated” coffee cream/milk samples. These samples could be clearly distinguished from pasteurized, “heat treated,” and ESL whipping cream samples (p < 0.002), respectively.Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Time temperature integrators (TTIs) are useful tools in estimating the heat load applied on differently processed dairy products. The objective of this study was to analyze and assess three TTIs&thinsp;&ndash;&thinsp;lactulose, furosine, and acid-soluble &beta;-lactoglobulin (&beta;-Lg)&thinsp;&ndash;&thinsp;in 70 high heated dairy products at retail in Austria and Germany comprising whipping cream, coffee cream/milk, and condensed milk products. While &beta;-Lg was not appropriate to evaluate the heat load of these products, furosine and especially lactulose increased with rising intensity of heat treatment, and are appropriate to distinguish between several heating categories analyzed. Pasteurized (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;8) and &ldquo;heat treated&rdquo; (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;5) whipping cream samples showed lowest furosine (48&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;14/ 45&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;19&nbsp;mg.100&nbsp;g&minus;1 protein) and low lactulose (29&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;10/57&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;28&nbsp;mg.L&minus;1) concentrations, followed by ESL whipping cream (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;10), ESL coffee cream (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;1), and UHT whipping cream (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;10) (furosine&nbsp;=&nbsp;72&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;37/71/161&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;30&nbsp;mg.100&nbsp;g&minus;1 protein; lactulose&nbsp;=&nbsp;56&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;41/161/195&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;39&nbsp;mg.L&minus;1), respectively. Sterilized condensed milk samples (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;14) showed the highest concentrations of both TTIs and could be clearly separated from UHT treated samples (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;5) (furosine&nbsp;=&nbsp;491&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;196/216&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;46&nbsp;mg.100&nbsp;g&minus;1 protein; lactulose&nbsp;=&nbsp;1997&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;658/409&nbsp;&plusmn;&nbsp;161&nbsp;mg.L&minus;1), whereas the so-called heat-treated samples (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;9) had a heat load in between showing an extreme range of variation for both TTIs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus