Limits...
Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean response times as a function of load-type and congruency in Experiment 2 (left panel) and Experiment 3 (right panel). The combined analysis was based on the same face identities in Experiments 2 and 3, which meant that for Experiment 3 only trials were included with the same eight target face identities as in Experiment 2.
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Figure 7: Mean response times as a function of load-type and congruency in Experiment 2 (left panel) and Experiment 3 (right panel). The combined analysis was based on the same face identities in Experiments 2 and 3, which meant that for Experiment 3 only trials were included with the same eight target face identities as in Experiment 2.

Mentions: In a final analysis, we compared the load effects between Experiment 2 and 3. First, we reduced the data set of Experiment 3 and included only trials containing the same famous faces (four politicians and four film stars) as used in Experiment 2 (see Figure 7). Then we ran a split-plot ANOVA with the combined results of the two experiments (as the between subjects factor). There were the usual effects of congruency, F(1, 52) = 9.73.0, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.16, and load-type, F(2, 104) = 227.42, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.81, and interaction between these two, F(2, 104) = 10.35, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.17. There was a marginal main effect of experiment, F(1, 52) = 3.96, p = 0.052, partial η2 = 0.07, reflecting somewhat longer response times in Experiment 2. There was an interaction between experiment and load-type, F(2, 104) = 6.40, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.11: While there was no significant difference in the search slopes of Experiment 3 and Experiment 2 between low load and high load, F(1, 52) = 2.78, p = 0.10, partial η2 = 0.05, the differential manipulation of non-target faces had a significantly stronger effect on target search slopes between high load and face manipulation (polarity-reversed vs. misaligned), F(1, 52) = 10.35, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.17. Polarity-reversed faces slowed the search task significantly less than misaligned faces, which in turn had similar search slopes to normal non-target faces. Importantly, there were no other interaction effects, Fs < 1.21, hence no differential impact from the type of experiment on congruency effects.


Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits
Mean response times as a function of load-type and congruency in Experiment 2 (left panel) and Experiment 3 (right panel). The combined analysis was based on the same face identities in Experiments 2 and 3, which meant that for Experiment 3 only trials were included with the same eight target face identities as in Experiment 2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037134&req=5

Figure 7: Mean response times as a function of load-type and congruency in Experiment 2 (left panel) and Experiment 3 (right panel). The combined analysis was based on the same face identities in Experiments 2 and 3, which meant that for Experiment 3 only trials were included with the same eight target face identities as in Experiment 2.
Mentions: In a final analysis, we compared the load effects between Experiment 2 and 3. First, we reduced the data set of Experiment 3 and included only trials containing the same famous faces (four politicians and four film stars) as used in Experiment 2 (see Figure 7). Then we ran a split-plot ANOVA with the combined results of the two experiments (as the between subjects factor). There were the usual effects of congruency, F(1, 52) = 9.73.0, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.16, and load-type, F(2, 104) = 227.42, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.81, and interaction between these two, F(2, 104) = 10.35, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.17. There was a marginal main effect of experiment, F(1, 52) = 3.96, p = 0.052, partial η2 = 0.07, reflecting somewhat longer response times in Experiment 2. There was an interaction between experiment and load-type, F(2, 104) = 6.40, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.11: While there was no significant difference in the search slopes of Experiment 3 and Experiment 2 between low load and high load, F(1, 52) = 2.78, p = 0.10, partial η2 = 0.05, the differential manipulation of non-target faces had a significantly stronger effect on target search slopes between high load and face manipulation (polarity-reversed vs. misaligned), F(1, 52) = 10.35, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.17. Polarity-reversed faces slowed the search task significantly less than misaligned faces, which in turn had similar search slopes to normal non-target faces. Importantly, there were no other interaction effects, Fs < 1.21, hence no differential impact from the type of experiment on congruency effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load&mdash;adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus