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The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus

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ABSTRACT

Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-016-3041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Morphological and anatomical features of A. ulvaceus. a Close up image of individual flowers of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.2 cm. b Glandular trichomes (arrows) on leaf surface; scale bar 100 μm. c Cross section of a petiole; scale bar 500 μm. d A transverse section of the leaf midrib; scale bar 1000 μm. e A closer view of the honeycomb aerenchyma (HA), extensive lacunae and diaphragms; scale bar 200 μm
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Fig2: Morphological and anatomical features of A. ulvaceus. a Close up image of individual flowers of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.2 cm. b Glandular trichomes (arrows) on leaf surface; scale bar 100 μm. c Cross section of a petiole; scale bar 500 μm. d A transverse section of the leaf midrib; scale bar 1000 μm. e A closer view of the honeycomb aerenchyma (HA), extensive lacunae and diaphragms; scale bar 200 μm

Mentions: Owing to the lack of literature on this economically important aquatic macrophyte, little is known about its morphology and almost nothing in regards to the anatomical structures of A. ulvaceus. Therefore, the present study examined several characteristics of this plant species and provided a detailed description on these aspects. Observational data showed that A. ulvaceus is monoecious, with perfect flowers, where both male and female organs occur together (Fig. 2a). The stamens generally appear in 4–7, but most often six surrounding the female structures in the centre. Anthers are of 2-thecate and pollens are always yellow. Likewise, the darker green carpels exist in 3–5 (usually three free carpels), unilocular and are pear-shaped. Each carpel will give rise to individual fruit. The isobilateral bright green (sometimes pale green) leaves are translucent and wavy; blades are often undulated and sometimes contorted (Fig. 1a). The blades usually have a distinct midrib with three or four pairs of parallel, confluent nerves connected by numerous cross-veins.Fig. 2


The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus
Morphological and anatomical features of A. ulvaceus. a Close up image of individual flowers of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.2 cm. b Glandular trichomes (arrows) on leaf surface; scale bar 100 μm. c Cross section of a petiole; scale bar 500 μm. d A transverse section of the leaf midrib; scale bar 1000 μm. e A closer view of the honeycomb aerenchyma (HA), extensive lacunae and diaphragms; scale bar 200 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037101&req=5

Fig2: Morphological and anatomical features of A. ulvaceus. a Close up image of individual flowers of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.2 cm. b Glandular trichomes (arrows) on leaf surface; scale bar 100 μm. c Cross section of a petiole; scale bar 500 μm. d A transverse section of the leaf midrib; scale bar 1000 μm. e A closer view of the honeycomb aerenchyma (HA), extensive lacunae and diaphragms; scale bar 200 μm
Mentions: Owing to the lack of literature on this economically important aquatic macrophyte, little is known about its morphology and almost nothing in regards to the anatomical structures of A. ulvaceus. Therefore, the present study examined several characteristics of this plant species and provided a detailed description on these aspects. Observational data showed that A. ulvaceus is monoecious, with perfect flowers, where both male and female organs occur together (Fig. 2a). The stamens generally appear in 4–7, but most often six surrounding the female structures in the centre. Anthers are of 2-thecate and pollens are always yellow. Likewise, the darker green carpels exist in 3–5 (usually three free carpels), unilocular and are pear-shaped. Each carpel will give rise to individual fruit. The isobilateral bright green (sometimes pale green) leaves are translucent and wavy; blades are often undulated and sometimes contorted (Fig. 1a). The blades usually have a distinct midrib with three or four pairs of parallel, confluent nerves connected by numerous cross-veins.Fig. 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-016-3041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus