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The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus

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ABSTRACT

Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-016-3041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Morphology of A. ulvaceus. a Aquarium grown A. ulvaceus plant; scale bar 5 cm. b A mature tuber with shoots arising from the shoot apical meristem; scale bar 1 cm. c An immature inflorescence borne on rachis (arrow); scale bar 1 cm. d Individual flowers along spikes of mature inflorescence; scale bar 0.5 cm. e Ripe follicles of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.5 cm. Note the distinct, curved beak and shrivelled stamens
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Fig1: Morphology of A. ulvaceus. a Aquarium grown A. ulvaceus plant; scale bar 5 cm. b A mature tuber with shoots arising from the shoot apical meristem; scale bar 1 cm. c An immature inflorescence borne on rachis (arrow); scale bar 1 cm. d Individual flowers along spikes of mature inflorescence; scale bar 0.5 cm. e Ripe follicles of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.5 cm. Note the distinct, curved beak and shrivelled stamens

Mentions: Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Madagascar water lettuce), is a submerged aquatic monocot native to the rivers of central and northern Madagascar (James 1986; Les et al. 2005; Azan 2011). This herbaceous perennial belongs to the family Aponogetonaceae (order Alismatales). Along with other 51 Aponogeton species of perennial aquatics, this plant predominantly distributes in the subtropical and tropical areas of Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia and New Guinea (Robinson 2011; Grímsson et al. 2014). It thrives well in both stagnant and flowing waters with varying light conditions (extreme shade to intense sunlight) and fluctuating water temperature (22–28 °C) (James 1986). The leaves, arranged in a rosette, may reach up to 60 cm in length and 10 cm in width (Fig. 1a) (Thabrew 2014). They are borne on petioles of equal length arising from a slightly hairy, cone-shaped tuber (Fig. 1b). This Madagascan species survives seasonal dry periods by entering dormancy, whereby the dormant tuber functions as food storage (Ingrouille and Eddie 2006). Inflorescences with a yellow colour grow on long peduncles of varying length according to the water depth (Fig. 1c). The self-sterile inflorescences are composed of 2 spikes and may attain a maximum length of 15 cm (Azan 2011). Flowers are hypogynous, small and sessile (Fig. 1d). They are arranged more or less spirally along the rachis. The ripe fruit of A. ulvaceus is a follicle and it is schizocarpic with a mostly distinct terminal, often curved beak (Fig. 1e) (Lye 1989; Grímsson et al. 2014). Fig. 1


The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus
Morphology of A. ulvaceus. a Aquarium grown A. ulvaceus plant; scale bar 5 cm. b A mature tuber with shoots arising from the shoot apical meristem; scale bar 1 cm. c An immature inflorescence borne on rachis (arrow); scale bar 1 cm. d Individual flowers along spikes of mature inflorescence; scale bar 0.5 cm. e Ripe follicles of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.5 cm. Note the distinct, curved beak and shrivelled stamens
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037101&req=5

Fig1: Morphology of A. ulvaceus. a Aquarium grown A. ulvaceus plant; scale bar 5 cm. b A mature tuber with shoots arising from the shoot apical meristem; scale bar 1 cm. c An immature inflorescence borne on rachis (arrow); scale bar 1 cm. d Individual flowers along spikes of mature inflorescence; scale bar 0.5 cm. e Ripe follicles of A. ulvaceus; scale bar 0.5 cm. Note the distinct, curved beak and shrivelled stamens
Mentions: Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Madagascar water lettuce), is a submerged aquatic monocot native to the rivers of central and northern Madagascar (James 1986; Les et al. 2005; Azan 2011). This herbaceous perennial belongs to the family Aponogetonaceae (order Alismatales). Along with other 51 Aponogeton species of perennial aquatics, this plant predominantly distributes in the subtropical and tropical areas of Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia and New Guinea (Robinson 2011; Grímsson et al. 2014). It thrives well in both stagnant and flowing waters with varying light conditions (extreme shade to intense sunlight) and fluctuating water temperature (22–28 °C) (James 1986). The leaves, arranged in a rosette, may reach up to 60 cm in length and 10 cm in width (Fig. 1a) (Thabrew 2014). They are borne on petioles of equal length arising from a slightly hairy, cone-shaped tuber (Fig. 1b). This Madagascan species survives seasonal dry periods by entering dormancy, whereby the dormant tuber functions as food storage (Ingrouille and Eddie 2006). Inflorescences with a yellow colour grow on long peduncles of varying length according to the water depth (Fig. 1c). The self-sterile inflorescences are composed of 2 spikes and may attain a maximum length of 15 cm (Azan 2011). Flowers are hypogynous, small and sessile (Fig. 1d). They are arranged more or less spirally along the rachis. The ripe fruit of A. ulvaceus is a follicle and it is schizocarpic with a mostly distinct terminal, often curved beak (Fig. 1e) (Lye 1989; Grímsson et al. 2014). Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-016-3041-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.