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Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


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Inflammatory markers in the epididymal adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.(A) qRT-PCR was conducted to measure F4/80 mRNA levels. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). (B) CLS number was counted in a field of H&E stained adipose tissue samples and expressed as CLS number per 100 adipocytes. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. (C) Pearson correlation between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS. (D) Representative H&E stained adipose tissue sections from control (CON) and blackcurrant (BC)-fed mice. Arrows indicate CLS. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test or unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference. CLS: Crown-like structure.
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Figure 3: Inflammatory markers in the epididymal adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.(A) qRT-PCR was conducted to measure F4/80 mRNA levels. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). (B) CLS number was counted in a field of H&E stained adipose tissue samples and expressed as CLS number per 100 adipocytes. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. (C) Pearson correlation between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS. (D) Representative H&E stained adipose tissue sections from control (CON) and blackcurrant (BC)-fed mice. Arrows indicate CLS. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test or unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference. CLS: Crown-like structure.

Mentions: No differences were noted among groups in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the epididymal adipose tissue (Table 5). However, the mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker, was significantly lower in the mice fed BC than controls (Fig. 3A). Consistently, the number of CLS, representing a dying adipocyte surrounded by macrophages, was also significantly lower in the BC-fed mice than controls (Fig. 3B and 3D). A significant correlation was observed between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS (r = 0.55, P = 0.01) (Fig. 3C).


Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice
Inflammatory markers in the epididymal adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.(A) qRT-PCR was conducted to measure F4/80 mRNA levels. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). (B) CLS number was counted in a field of H&E stained adipose tissue samples and expressed as CLS number per 100 adipocytes. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. (C) Pearson correlation between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS. (D) Representative H&E stained adipose tissue sections from control (CON) and blackcurrant (BC)-fed mice. Arrows indicate CLS. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test or unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference. CLS: Crown-like structure.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037066&req=5

Figure 3: Inflammatory markers in the epididymal adipose tissue of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.(A) qRT-PCR was conducted to measure F4/80 mRNA levels. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). (B) CLS number was counted in a field of H&E stained adipose tissue samples and expressed as CLS number per 100 adipocytes. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. (C) Pearson correlation between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS. (D) Representative H&E stained adipose tissue sections from control (CON) and blackcurrant (BC)-fed mice. Arrows indicate CLS. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test or unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference. CLS: Crown-like structure.
Mentions: No differences were noted among groups in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the epididymal adipose tissue (Table 5). However, the mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker, was significantly lower in the mice fed BC than controls (Fig. 3A). Consistently, the number of CLS, representing a dying adipocyte surrounded by macrophages, was also significantly lower in the BC-fed mice than controls (Fig. 3B and 3D). A significant correlation was observed between F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS (r = 0.55, P = 0.01) (Fig. 3C).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor &alpha;. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus