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Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression of genes in the proximal intestine of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with BK for 12 weeks.Values are relative expression to control. CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference between two groups.
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Figure 2: Expression of genes in the proximal intestine of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with BK for 12 weeks.Values are relative expression to control. CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference between two groups.

Mentions: To gain insight into the TG-lowering effect of BK, genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver, skeletal muscle and proximal intestine were examined. Berries had no significant effects on the expression of liver lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) (Table 5). Likewise, no differences were observed in the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT-1α), and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX-1) in the liver, muscle and intestine (Table 5 and Fig. 2). The genes involved in energy uncoupling as well as blocking proton leaking in the mitochondria [27], e.g., uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and UCP-3, were also not significantly altered by berry supplementations. Although there were no significant differences in the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT1), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) mRNA levels were significantly increased in mice fed BK compared to controls. In the epididymal adipose tissue, none of the berry supplementations significantly altered lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and ATGL mRNA levels.


Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice
Expression of genes in the proximal intestine of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with BK for 12 weeks.Values are relative expression to control. CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference between two groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037066&req=5

Figure 2: Expression of genes in the proximal intestine of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with BK for 12 weeks.Values are relative expression to control. CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Unpaired t-test was used to evaluate a statistical difference between two groups.
Mentions: To gain insight into the TG-lowering effect of BK, genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver, skeletal muscle and proximal intestine were examined. Berries had no significant effects on the expression of liver lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) (Table 5). Likewise, no differences were observed in the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT-1α), and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX-1) in the liver, muscle and intestine (Table 5 and Fig. 2). The genes involved in energy uncoupling as well as blocking proton leaking in the mitochondria [27], e.g., uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and UCP-3, were also not significantly altered by berry supplementations. Although there were no significant differences in the expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT1), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) mRNA levels were significantly increased in mice fed BK compared to controls. In the epididymal adipose tissue, none of the berry supplementations significantly altered lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and ATGL mRNA levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus