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Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Plasma lipid levels of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; non-HDLC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test was used to evaluate a statistical difference.
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Figure 1: Plasma lipid levels of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; non-HDLC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test was used to evaluate a statistical difference.

Mentions: Plasma TG was significantly lower in mice fed BK than controls and other berry-fed groups. No significant differences were noted among groups in plasma TC and non-HDLC (Fig. 1), hepatic damage markers (ALT and AST), oxidative stress markers (FRAP and SOD), and TNFα (Table 4). Also, plasma insulin and glucose were not significantly altered by berry diets. Interestingly, however, plasma glucose was significantly elevated in mice fed BK, compared with controls and mice fed BB.


Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice
Plasma lipid levels of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; non-HDLC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test was used to evaluate a statistical difference.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037066&req=5

Figure 1: Plasma lipid levels of male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF control diet or a HF diet supplemented with a berry for 12 weeks.TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; non-HDLC, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CON, control; BB, blueberry; BK, blackberry; BC, blackcurrant. Mean ± SEM, n = 10. Bars with a different letter are significantly different (P < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post Hoc Test was used to evaluate a statistical difference.
Mentions: Plasma TG was significantly lower in mice fed BK than controls and other berry-fed groups. No significant differences were noted among groups in plasma TC and non-HDLC (Fig. 1), hepatic damage markers (ALT and AST), oxidative stress markers (FRAP and SOD), and TNFα (Table 4). Also, plasma insulin and glucose were not significantly altered by berry diets. Interestingly, however, plasma glucose was significantly elevated in mice fed BK, compared with controls and mice fed BB.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration.

Results: No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor &alpha;. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus