Limits...
Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice injected with formaldehyde. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were intraperitoneally injected with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days, followed by measurements of their drinking frequencies (A), water quantities (B), and brain formaldehyde (C), serum AVP (D) and ANG II levels (E). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036952&req=5

F4-ad-7-5-561: Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice injected with formaldehyde. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were intraperitoneally injected with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days, followed by measurements of their drinking frequencies (A), water quantities (B), and brain formaldehyde (C), serum AVP (D) and ANG II levels (E). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.

Mentions: To investigate whether formaldehyde affected water intake, we intraperitoneally injected the mice with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days. Both the quantity and frequency of water intake were significantly (P <0.01) decreased after the mice (n = 8) were injected with formaldehyde (Fig. 4A, 4B). A distinct increase in the brain formaldehyde level (P < 0.05, Fig. 4C) was be detected and was, which accompanied by an increase in the serum AVP level (P<0.05, Fig. 4D). Further determinations revealed observable increases in body weight (P = 0.056) and the serum osmolality (P = 0.092; Supplementary Fig. 3A and 3B). These data suggest that formaldehyde influences the water intake behaviors of mice by increasing the AVP levels.


Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior
Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice injected with formaldehyde. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were intraperitoneally injected with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days, followed by measurements of their drinking frequencies (A), water quantities (B), and brain formaldehyde (C), serum AVP (D) and ANG II levels (E). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036952&req=5

F4-ad-7-5-561: Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice injected with formaldehyde. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were intraperitoneally injected with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days, followed by measurements of their drinking frequencies (A), water quantities (B), and brain formaldehyde (C), serum AVP (D) and ANG II levels (E). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.
Mentions: To investigate whether formaldehyde affected water intake, we intraperitoneally injected the mice with formaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, once daily) for 7 days. Both the quantity and frequency of water intake were significantly (P <0.01) decreased after the mice (n = 8) were injected with formaldehyde (Fig. 4A, 4B). A distinct increase in the brain formaldehyde level (P < 0.05, Fig. 4C) was be detected and was, which accompanied by an increase in the serum AVP level (P<0.05, Fig. 4D). Further determinations revealed observable increases in body weight (P = 0.056) and the serum osmolality (P = 0.092; Supplementary Fig. 3A and 3B). These data suggest that formaldehyde influences the water intake behaviors of mice by increasing the AVP levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus