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Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the brain and serum of mice injected with AVP. The conditions were the same as for Figure 2. After an intravenous injection of AVP in the tail, we detected the concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the serum (A, B) and brain (C, D) by ELISA. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
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F3-ad-7-5-561: Concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the brain and serum of mice injected with AVP. The conditions were the same as for Figure 2. After an intravenous injection of AVP in the tail, we detected the concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the serum (A, B) and brain (C, D) by ELISA. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

Mentions: As illustrated in Fig. 2D, the AVP injection markedly elevated the brain formaldehyde levels from 4 h to 24 h (n = 8, P < 0.001). To clarify the mechanism responsible for the elevated formaldehyde levels, we detected the changes in both the level and activity of the SSAO protein. An ELISA with an anti-SSAO antibody revealed that the levels of the SSAO protein were increased in the sera (n = 8, P < 0.05) 4 hours after the administration of AVP (Fig. 3A), and this increase was followed by an increase in the SSAO activity (n = 8, P<0.01) as measured with the ELISA kit (Fig. 3B). Furthermore, we also detected the level (Fig. 3C) and activity (Fig. 3D) of the SSAO protein in the mouse brain and found that both increased following AVP injection (n = 8, P<0.05). These data indicated that AVP increased the endogenous formaldehyde level by activating SSAO.


Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior
Concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the brain and serum of mice injected with AVP. The conditions were the same as for Figure 2. After an intravenous injection of AVP in the tail, we detected the concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the serum (A, B) and brain (C, D) by ELISA. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036952&req=5

F3-ad-7-5-561: Concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the brain and serum of mice injected with AVP. The conditions were the same as for Figure 2. After an intravenous injection of AVP in the tail, we detected the concentrations and enzymatic activities of SSAO in the serum (A, B) and brain (C, D) by ELISA. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
Mentions: As illustrated in Fig. 2D, the AVP injection markedly elevated the brain formaldehyde levels from 4 h to 24 h (n = 8, P < 0.001). To clarify the mechanism responsible for the elevated formaldehyde levels, we detected the changes in both the level and activity of the SSAO protein. An ELISA with an anti-SSAO antibody revealed that the levels of the SSAO protein were increased in the sera (n = 8, P < 0.05) 4 hours after the administration of AVP (Fig. 3A), and this increase was followed by an increase in the SSAO activity (n = 8, P<0.01) as measured with the ELISA kit (Fig. 3B). Furthermore, we also detected the level (Fig. 3C) and activity (Fig. 3D) of the SSAO protein in the mouse brain and found that both increased following AVP injection (n = 8, P<0.05). These data indicated that AVP increased the endogenous formaldehyde level by activating SSAO.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus