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Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice after the AVP injection. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were administered 100 μl of AVP (2 ng/kg, once at the beginning) through an intravenous injection in the tail, followed by measurements of their drinking quantities (A), frequencies (B), and brain formaldehyde (C) and AVP levels (D) for 24 hours. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P <0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
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F2-ad-7-5-561: Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice after the AVP injection. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were administered 100 μl of AVP (2 ng/kg, once at the beginning) through an intravenous injection in the tail, followed by measurements of their drinking quantities (A), frequencies (B), and brain formaldehyde (C) and AVP levels (D) for 24 hours. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P <0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

Mentions: To demonstrate that the changes in the AVP levels were associated with water intake behavior, we intravenously injected 3-month old mice with AVP through the tail to observe whether increased AVP levels altered their water intake behavior. As illustrated in Fig. 2A, the water intake quantity within 4 hours was significantly (P<0.05) decreased for the mice who had been injected with AVP, and this decrease was associated with a decrease in drinking frequency (P < 0.05), compared with the values of the control group (Fig. 2B). Note that the AVP injection increased the mouse serum AVP concentration (Fig. 2C). Therefore, the increased serum AVP level resulted in decreased water intake behavior in the mice in our experimental conditions.


Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior
Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice after the AVP injection. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were administered 100 μl of AVP (2 ng/kg, once at the beginning) through an intravenous injection in the tail, followed by measurements of their drinking quantities (A), frequencies (B), and brain formaldehyde (C) and AVP levels (D) for 24 hours. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P <0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036952&req=5

F2-ad-7-5-561: Changes in the water quantities, drinking frequencies, and brain formaldehyde and serum AVP concentrations in mice after the AVP injection. The conditions were the same as Figure 1, except that the 3-month-old C57 mice (n = 8) were administered 100 μl of AVP (2 ng/kg, once at the beginning) through an intravenous injection in the tail, followed by measurements of their drinking quantities (A), frequencies (B), and brain formaldehyde (C) and AVP levels (D) for 24 hours. The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P <0.01; ***, P < 0.001.
Mentions: To demonstrate that the changes in the AVP levels were associated with water intake behavior, we intravenously injected 3-month old mice with AVP through the tail to observe whether increased AVP levels altered their water intake behavior. As illustrated in Fig. 2A, the water intake quantity within 4 hours was significantly (P<0.05) decreased for the mice who had been injected with AVP, and this decrease was associated with a decrease in drinking frequency (P < 0.05), compared with the values of the control group (Fig. 2B). Note that the AVP injection increased the mouse serum AVP concentration (Fig. 2C). Therefore, the increased serum AVP level resulted in decreased water intake behavior in the mice in our experimental conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus