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Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in quantity and frequency of water intake as well as the brain formaldehyde and AVP concentrations in mice at different ages. C57 BL/6 mice were maintained under pathogen-free conditions (22 ± 2°C, humidity 50%) and provided a regular diet and sterile water. Their drinking behaviors were recorded with an infrared camera, followed by counting the volume (ml/h) (A) and frequency (times/h) of water intake (B) at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months, n = 6). Their brain formaldehyde (μM) (C) and blood AVP (pg/ml) (D) levels were also measured at these ages (n = 8). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01
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F1-ad-7-5-561: Changes in quantity and frequency of water intake as well as the brain formaldehyde and AVP concentrations in mice at different ages. C57 BL/6 mice were maintained under pathogen-free conditions (22 ± 2°C, humidity 50%) and provided a regular diet and sterile water. Their drinking behaviors were recorded with an infrared camera, followed by counting the volume (ml/h) (A) and frequency (times/h) of water intake (B) at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months, n = 6). Their brain formaldehyde (μM) (C) and blood AVP (pg/ml) (D) levels were also measured at these ages (n = 8). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01

Mentions: To investigate the relationship between the formaldehyde levels and water intake behavior, wild-type C57 BL/6 mice were fed a regular diet and housed under pathogen-free conditions, and the brain formaldehyde concentrations were determined at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months). Simultaneously, the animals’ water intake behaviors were recorded with an infrared CCD camera. The water intake quantities (ml/hour) significantly increased from 3 to 6 months (n = 6, P<0.05) and decreased at 10 months (n = 6, P<0.01). The water intake quantity of the 10-month-old mice was less than those of both the 3- and 6-month-old mice (Fig. 1a). The drinking frequency (counts/hour) of the 10-month-old mice was significantly decreased compared with those of both the 3-month-old (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 6-month-old mice (n = 6, P < 0.05; Fig. 1B). These data demonstrated that the water intakes of the mice decreased with age.


Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior
Changes in quantity and frequency of water intake as well as the brain formaldehyde and AVP concentrations in mice at different ages. C57 BL/6 mice were maintained under pathogen-free conditions (22 ± 2°C, humidity 50%) and provided a regular diet and sterile water. Their drinking behaviors were recorded with an infrared camera, followed by counting the volume (ml/h) (A) and frequency (times/h) of water intake (B) at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months, n = 6). Their brain formaldehyde (μM) (C) and blood AVP (pg/ml) (D) levels were also measured at these ages (n = 8). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036952&req=5

F1-ad-7-5-561: Changes in quantity and frequency of water intake as well as the brain formaldehyde and AVP concentrations in mice at different ages. C57 BL/6 mice were maintained under pathogen-free conditions (22 ± 2°C, humidity 50%) and provided a regular diet and sterile water. Their drinking behaviors were recorded with an infrared camera, followed by counting the volume (ml/h) (A) and frequency (times/h) of water intake (B) at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months, n = 6). Their brain formaldehyde (μM) (C) and blood AVP (pg/ml) (D) levels were also measured at these ages (n = 8). The data are shown as the means ± SE; *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01
Mentions: To investigate the relationship between the formaldehyde levels and water intake behavior, wild-type C57 BL/6 mice were fed a regular diet and housed under pathogen-free conditions, and the brain formaldehyde concentrations were determined at different ages (3, 6 and 10 months). Simultaneously, the animals’ water intake behaviors were recorded with an infrared CCD camera. The water intake quantities (ml/hour) significantly increased from 3 to 6 months (n = 6, P<0.05) and decreased at 10 months (n = 6, P<0.01). The water intake quantity of the 10-month-old mice was less than those of both the 3- and 6-month-old mice (Fig. 1a). The drinking frequency (counts/hour) of the 10-month-old mice was significantly decreased compared with those of both the 3-month-old (n = 6, P < 0.01) and 6-month-old mice (n = 6, P < 0.05; Fig. 1B). These data demonstrated that the water intakes of the mice decreased with age.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus