Limits...
BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723).

Background: D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis.

Methods: ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis.

Results: The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone.

Conclusion: Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN723T treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison of food consumption and average caloric intake of mice according to diet. Values are reported as mean +/- s.e.m.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036941&req=5

Figure 4: Comparison of food consumption and average caloric intake of mice according to diet. Values are reported as mean +/- s.e.m.

Mentions: Based upon the weight of food eaten by each group of mice and the number of Kcal/g available for each diet, average daily energy consumption per mouse was calculated (Illustration 4). The mice on the Western and BSN723 diets consumed the highest number of calories per day (15.77 ± 1.13 Kcal/day and 16.34 ± 0.98 Kcal/day, respectively, no significant difference, P = 0.69) followed by the BSN723T (13.86 ± 0.98 Kcal/day), D-tagatose (11.65 ± 1.33 Kcal/day) and Standard diet (11.23 ± 0.49 Kcal/day) groups. The caloric intake between the following groups was statistically significant; Standard and Western diets (+P < 0.001), Standard and BSN723 diet (+P < 0.001), Standard and BSN723T diet (+P = 0.004), Western and D-tagatose diet (*P < 0.001), D-tagatose and BSN723 diet (*P < 0.001) and the BSN723 and BSN723T diet groups (◆ P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in caloric intake between the Standard and D-tagatose, Western and BSN723, Western and BSN723T or D-tagatose and BSN723T diet groups. There was no significant difference between the five groups in terms of food consumption by weight of chow eaten. One possible caveat regarding the estimated caloric values assigned to the chows containing D-tagatose is that the exact caloric value of the sugar is not a certainty and probably varies depending on the individual consuming it. Upon initial consumption of the sugar, it is poorly absorbed by the intestine, but absorption may increase over time with continued consumption. A value of 1.5 kcal/g of D-tagatose has been agreed upon for the use on food labels by the FDA and this is the value used to calculate the number of kcal/g in the chows containing D-tagatose59. Oxygen consumption measurements for each mouse in each study may be the best way to determine energy consumption in a particular study, but given the dependence of tagatose caloric content on the gut microbiome, such results may not be transferrable to other studies.


BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet
Comparison of food consumption and average caloric intake of mice according to diet. Values are reported as mean +/- s.e.m.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036941&req=5

Figure 4: Comparison of food consumption and average caloric intake of mice according to diet. Values are reported as mean +/- s.e.m.
Mentions: Based upon the weight of food eaten by each group of mice and the number of Kcal/g available for each diet, average daily energy consumption per mouse was calculated (Illustration 4). The mice on the Western and BSN723 diets consumed the highest number of calories per day (15.77 ± 1.13 Kcal/day and 16.34 ± 0.98 Kcal/day, respectively, no significant difference, P = 0.69) followed by the BSN723T (13.86 ± 0.98 Kcal/day), D-tagatose (11.65 ± 1.33 Kcal/day) and Standard diet (11.23 ± 0.49 Kcal/day) groups. The caloric intake between the following groups was statistically significant; Standard and Western diets (+P < 0.001), Standard and BSN723 diet (+P < 0.001), Standard and BSN723T diet (+P = 0.004), Western and D-tagatose diet (*P < 0.001), D-tagatose and BSN723 diet (*P < 0.001) and the BSN723 and BSN723T diet groups (◆ P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in caloric intake between the Standard and D-tagatose, Western and BSN723, Western and BSN723T or D-tagatose and BSN723T diet groups. There was no significant difference between the five groups in terms of food consumption by weight of chow eaten. One possible caveat regarding the estimated caloric values assigned to the chows containing D-tagatose is that the exact caloric value of the sugar is not a certainty and probably varies depending on the individual consuming it. Upon initial consumption of the sugar, it is poorly absorbed by the intestine, but absorption may increase over time with continued consumption. A value of 1.5 kcal/g of D-tagatose has been agreed upon for the use on food labels by the FDA and this is the value used to calculate the number of kcal/g in the chows containing D-tagatose59. Oxygen consumption measurements for each mouse in each study may be the best way to determine energy consumption in a particular study, but given the dependence of tagatose caloric content on the gut microbiome, such results may not be transferrable to other studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723).

Background: D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis.

Methods: ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis.

Results: The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone.

Conclusion: Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN723T treatment.

No MeSH data available.