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Femoral Bone Marrow Insulin Sensitivity Is Increased by Resistance Training in Elderly Female Offspring of Overweight and Obese Mothers

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow insulin sensitivity may be an important factor for bone health in addition to bone mineral density especially in insulin resistant conditions. First we aimed to study if prenatal maternal obesity plays a role in determining bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring. Secondly we studied if a four-month individualized resistance training intervention increases bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring and whether this possible positive outcome is regulated by the offspring’s mother’s obesity status. 37 frail elderly females (mean age 71.9 ± 3.1 years) of which 20 were offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers (OLM, maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) and 17 were offspring of obese/overweight mothers (OOM, maternal BMI ≥ 28.1 kg/m2) were studied before and after a four-month individualized resistance training intervention. Nine age- and sex-matched non-frail controls (maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) were studied at baseline. Femoral bone marrow (FBM) and vertebral bone marrow (VBM) insulin sensitivity were measured using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We found that bone marrow insulin sensitivity was not related to maternal obesity status but FBM insulin sensitivity correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity (R = 0.487, p = 0.001). A four-month resistance training intervention increased FBM insulin sensitivity by 47% (p = 0.006) only in OOM, while VBM insulin sensitivity remained unchanged regardless of the maternal obesity status. In conclusion, FBM and VBM glucose metabolism reacts differently to a four-month resistance training intervention in elderly women according to their maternal obesity status.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01931540

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Study design.OLM (offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers), OOM (offspring of obese/overweight mothers). Modified from [6].
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pone.0163723.g001: Study design.OLM (offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers), OOM (offspring of obese/overweight mothers). Modified from [6].

Mentions: The study design is depicted in Fig 1 [6]. The frail subjects were studied before and after the intervention. The control subjects were studied only at baseline. Studies took place at the Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland between 8th of June 2012 and 29th of April 2014. After the first study visit, the frail subjects underwent an individualized four-month resistance training intervention three times a week, 60 minutes per session under supervision of a trained, licensed physiotherapist for four months in Folkhälsan Research Center’s gym. Resistance training sessions started with warm-up (10 minutes) with a cycle and/or elliptical ergometer. It continued with eight different resistance exercises targeting large muscle groups of the lower and upper body (e.g., leg presses, chest presses, seated rows, abdominal crunches, back extensions, seated leg extensions, seated leg curls and hip abductions). At each station, subjects completed three sets of 8–15 repetitions with a load that corresponded to 50–80% of estimated 1 repetition maximum (RM). One RM for each exercise was estimated from 8-RM tests by applying Epley’s formula [24]. Progress in muscle strength was measured once a month and the loads for the following month were adjusted as appropriate.


Femoral Bone Marrow Insulin Sensitivity Is Increased by Resistance Training in Elderly Female Offspring of Overweight and Obese Mothers
Study design.OLM (offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers), OOM (offspring of obese/overweight mothers). Modified from [6].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036877&req=5

pone.0163723.g001: Study design.OLM (offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers), OOM (offspring of obese/overweight mothers). Modified from [6].
Mentions: The study design is depicted in Fig 1 [6]. The frail subjects were studied before and after the intervention. The control subjects were studied only at baseline. Studies took place at the Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland between 8th of June 2012 and 29th of April 2014. After the first study visit, the frail subjects underwent an individualized four-month resistance training intervention three times a week, 60 minutes per session under supervision of a trained, licensed physiotherapist for four months in Folkhälsan Research Center’s gym. Resistance training sessions started with warm-up (10 minutes) with a cycle and/or elliptical ergometer. It continued with eight different resistance exercises targeting large muscle groups of the lower and upper body (e.g., leg presses, chest presses, seated rows, abdominal crunches, back extensions, seated leg extensions, seated leg curls and hip abductions). At each station, subjects completed three sets of 8–15 repetitions with a load that corresponded to 50–80% of estimated 1 repetition maximum (RM). One RM for each exercise was estimated from 8-RM tests by applying Epley’s formula [24]. Progress in muscle strength was measured once a month and the loads for the following month were adjusted as appropriate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow insulin sensitivity may be an important factor for bone health in addition to bone mineral density especially in insulin resistant conditions. First we aimed to study if prenatal maternal obesity plays a role in determining bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring. Secondly we studied if a four-month individualized resistance training intervention increases bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring and whether this possible positive outcome is regulated by the offspring’s mother’s obesity status. 37 frail elderly females (mean age 71.9 ± 3.1 years) of which 20 were offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers (OLM, maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) and 17 were offspring of obese/overweight mothers (OOM, maternal BMI ≥ 28.1 kg/m2) were studied before and after a four-month individualized resistance training intervention. Nine age- and sex-matched non-frail controls (maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) were studied at baseline. Femoral bone marrow (FBM) and vertebral bone marrow (VBM) insulin sensitivity were measured using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We found that bone marrow insulin sensitivity was not related to maternal obesity status but FBM insulin sensitivity correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity (R = 0.487, p = 0.001). A four-month resistance training intervention increased FBM insulin sensitivity by 47% (p = 0.006) only in OOM, while VBM insulin sensitivity remained unchanged regardless of the maternal obesity status. In conclusion, FBM and VBM glucose metabolism reacts differently to a four-month resistance training intervention in elderly women according to their maternal obesity status.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01931540

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus