Limits...
Genetics and immunity in the era of single-cell genomics

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent developments in the field of single-cell genomics (SCG) are changing our understanding of how functional phenotypes of cell populations emerge from the behaviour of individual cells. Some of the applications of SCG include the discovery of new gene networks and novel cell subpopulations, fine mapping of transcription kinetics, and the relationships between cell clonality and their functional phenotypes. Immunology is one of the fields that is benefiting the most from such advancements, providing us with completely new insights into mammalian immunity. In this review, we start by covering new immunological insights originating from the use of single-cell genomic tools, specifically single-cell RNA-sequencing. Furthermore, we discuss how new genetic study designs are starting to explain inter-individual variation in the immune response. We conclude with a perspective on new multi-omics technologies capable of integrating several readouts from the same single cell and how such techniques might push our biological understanding of mammalian immunity to a new level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Single-cell measurements retain critical cellular heterogeneity information that is lost by bulk genomics assays. (A) Bulk measurements of a cell population cannot distinguish different cellular states. Single-cell analyses can reveal different cell subpopulations and predict/investigate cell skewing upon receiving external stimuli. (B) Single-cell measurements provide higher temporal resolution and a more comprehensive overview of a dynamic process.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036872&req=5

ddw192-F1: Single-cell measurements retain critical cellular heterogeneity information that is lost by bulk genomics assays. (A) Bulk measurements of a cell population cannot distinguish different cellular states. Single-cell analyses can reveal different cell subpopulations and predict/investigate cell skewing upon receiving external stimuli. (B) Single-cell measurements provide higher temporal resolution and a more comprehensive overview of a dynamic process.

Mentions: Beyond the insights mentioned above, a major advantage of SCG methods is that they allow the discovery of new cell states or cell types within a sample (Fig. 1A). SCG methods have frequently led to the discovery of new subtypes of cells without a priori knowledge about cell type-specific markers. One of the most commonly investigated systems by SCG technologies has been the mammalian immune system, which consists of a wide variety of cell types responsible to fight infection and cancer. Early single-cell transcriptomic studies showcased the feasibility of identifying distinct cell types from a complex tissue and revealing potential novel markers for specific cell types (13–15). Recent studies further demonstrated that it was possible to uncover new hidden cell subpopulations within very similar cells (16–20). Examples include steroidogenic mouse T helper 2 cells (16), mouse Th2 developmental stages (17), different subpopulations within human ILC3 cells (20), mouse Th17 cells (18), the highly divergent subpopulations of mouse invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells (21), and most recently, three cellular states during mouse CD4+ T-cell activation (22).Figure 1.


Genetics and immunity in the era of single-cell genomics
Single-cell measurements retain critical cellular heterogeneity information that is lost by bulk genomics assays. (A) Bulk measurements of a cell population cannot distinguish different cellular states. Single-cell analyses can reveal different cell subpopulations and predict/investigate cell skewing upon receiving external stimuli. (B) Single-cell measurements provide higher temporal resolution and a more comprehensive overview of a dynamic process.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036872&req=5

ddw192-F1: Single-cell measurements retain critical cellular heterogeneity information that is lost by bulk genomics assays. (A) Bulk measurements of a cell population cannot distinguish different cellular states. Single-cell analyses can reveal different cell subpopulations and predict/investigate cell skewing upon receiving external stimuli. (B) Single-cell measurements provide higher temporal resolution and a more comprehensive overview of a dynamic process.
Mentions: Beyond the insights mentioned above, a major advantage of SCG methods is that they allow the discovery of new cell states or cell types within a sample (Fig. 1A). SCG methods have frequently led to the discovery of new subtypes of cells without a priori knowledge about cell type-specific markers. One of the most commonly investigated systems by SCG technologies has been the mammalian immune system, which consists of a wide variety of cell types responsible to fight infection and cancer. Early single-cell transcriptomic studies showcased the feasibility of identifying distinct cell types from a complex tissue and revealing potential novel markers for specific cell types (13–15). Recent studies further demonstrated that it was possible to uncover new hidden cell subpopulations within very similar cells (16–20). Examples include steroidogenic mouse T helper 2 cells (16), mouse Th2 developmental stages (17), different subpopulations within human ILC3 cells (20), mouse Th17 cells (18), the highly divergent subpopulations of mouse invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells (21), and most recently, three cellular states during mouse CD4+ T-cell activation (22).Figure 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent developments in the field of single-cell genomics (SCG) are changing our understanding of how functional phenotypes of cell populations emerge from the behaviour of individual cells. Some of the applications of SCG include the discovery of new gene networks and novel cell subpopulations, fine mapping of transcription kinetics, and the relationships between cell clonality and their functional phenotypes. Immunology is one of the fields that is benefiting the most from such advancements, providing us with completely new insights into mammalian immunity. In this review, we start by covering new immunological insights originating from the use of single-cell genomic tools, specifically single-cell RNA-sequencing. Furthermore, we discuss how new genetic study designs are starting to explain inter-individual variation in the immune response. We conclude with a perspective on new multi-omics technologies capable of integrating several readouts from the same single cell and how such techniques might push our biological understanding of mammalian immunity to a new level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus