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Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult developmental time points.The y-axis represents relative expression level normalized with heat shock cognate (HSC) 70, and the x-axis represents different ages on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, and 21, accordingly. Different letters (a, b, c, d, e, f) indicate significantly different levels of protein expression (p < 0.05), i.e. groups labelled with one letter (e.g. “a”) are not significantly different from each other, but are different to groups labelled with a different letter (e.g. b, c, d, e, or f), and so on. Any given letter is only relevant within that protein (i.e. “a” in SN1 has nothing to do with “a” in SN2). Error bars are plotted for all points, but are too small to be visualised in some cases.
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pone.0163810.g002: Expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult developmental time points.The y-axis represents relative expression level normalized with heat shock cognate (HSC) 70, and the x-axis represents different ages on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, and 21, accordingly. Different letters (a, b, c, d, e, f) indicate significantly different levels of protein expression (p < 0.05), i.e. groups labelled with one letter (e.g. “a”) are not significantly different from each other, but are different to groups labelled with a different letter (e.g. b, c, d, e, or f), and so on. Any given letter is only relevant within that protein (i.e. “a” in SN1 has nothing to do with “a” in SN2). Error bars are plotted for all points, but are too small to be visualised in some cases.

Mentions: The relative expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult development are shown in Fig 2 and S1 Table. The 17 protein spots varied in their expression across the 8 time points sampled (0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16 and 21 days). Although there was variation observed, the patterns of expression could be placed into four groups. The largest (Group 1) was represented by SN4, 10, 11, 13, 15 and 16, which tended to show a more or less steady increase in expression with age of mosquito, but reaching a plateau at the latter time points. Another large group (Group 2) consisted of SN1, 2, 5, 7, 9 and probably SN3, in which the relative expression climbed rapidly to day 3, and then remained more or less constant for the remaining time points, except SN3 that dropped off at the last time point. The third group (Group 3) included SN8, 12, 14 and 17, which showed an early steep rise, a levelling off, then a peak on day 12, and decreased expression thereafter. Finally, there was SN6 (Group 4), which showed a unique expression pattern, rising to peak at day 3, and then steadily falling thereafter. A homologue of a heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein from Ae. aegypti (accession number ABF18332) was used as an internal control in the 2-DE gels (Tables 1 and 2, Figs 1 and 2). This control protein is indicated by an arrowhead in each panel of Fig 1 and showed no significant difference in density between samples.


Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult developmental time points.The y-axis represents relative expression level normalized with heat shock cognate (HSC) 70, and the x-axis represents different ages on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, and 21, accordingly. Different letters (a, b, c, d, e, f) indicate significantly different levels of protein expression (p < 0.05), i.e. groups labelled with one letter (e.g. “a”) are not significantly different from each other, but are different to groups labelled with a different letter (e.g. b, c, d, e, or f), and so on. Any given letter is only relevant within that protein (i.e. “a” in SN1 has nothing to do with “a” in SN2). Error bars are plotted for all points, but are too small to be visualised in some cases.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036837&req=5

pone.0163810.g002: Expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult developmental time points.The y-axis represents relative expression level normalized with heat shock cognate (HSC) 70, and the x-axis represents different ages on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16, and 21, accordingly. Different letters (a, b, c, d, e, f) indicate significantly different levels of protein expression (p < 0.05), i.e. groups labelled with one letter (e.g. “a”) are not significantly different from each other, but are different to groups labelled with a different letter (e.g. b, c, d, e, or f), and so on. Any given letter is only relevant within that protein (i.e. “a” in SN1 has nothing to do with “a” in SN2). Error bars are plotted for all points, but are too small to be visualised in some cases.
Mentions: The relative expression levels of the 17 major protein spots determined at different ages in adult development are shown in Fig 2 and S1 Table. The 17 protein spots varied in their expression across the 8 time points sampled (0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 16 and 21 days). Although there was variation observed, the patterns of expression could be placed into four groups. The largest (Group 1) was represented by SN4, 10, 11, 13, 15 and 16, which tended to show a more or less steady increase in expression with age of mosquito, but reaching a plateau at the latter time points. Another large group (Group 2) consisted of SN1, 2, 5, 7, 9 and probably SN3, in which the relative expression climbed rapidly to day 3, and then remained more or less constant for the remaining time points, except SN3 that dropped off at the last time point. The third group (Group 3) included SN8, 12, 14 and 17, which showed an early steep rise, a levelling off, then a peak on day 12, and decreased expression thereafter. Finally, there was SN6 (Group 4), which showed a unique expression pattern, rising to peak at day 3, and then steadily falling thereafter. A homologue of a heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein from Ae. aegypti (accession number ABF18332) was used as an internal control in the 2-DE gels (Tables 1 and 2, Figs 1 and 2). This control protein is indicated by an arrowhead in each panel of Fig 1 and showed no significant difference in density between samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus