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Cost-effectiveness analysis of online hemodiafiltration versus high-flux hemodialysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may lead to better clinical outcomes than high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD), but concerns have been raised about the cost-effectiveness of HDF versus HF-HD. Aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical benefits, in terms of longer survival and better health-related quality of life, are worth the possibly higher costs of HDF compared to HF-HD.

Methods: The analysis comprised a simulation based on the combined results of previous published studies, with the following steps: 1) estimation of the survival function of HF-HD patients from a clinical trial and of HDF patients using the risk reduction estimated in a meta-analysis; 2) simulation of the survival of the same sample of patients as if allocated to HF-HD or HDF using three-state Markov models; and 3) application of state-specific health-related quality of life coefficients and differential costs derived from the literature. Several Monte Carlo simulations were performed, including simulations for patients with different risk profiles, for example, by age (patients aged 40, 50, and 60 years), sex, and diabetic status. Scatter plots of simulations in the cost-effectiveness plane were produced, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were computed.

Results: An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €6,982/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was estimated for the baseline cohort of 50-year-old male patients. Given the commonly accepted threshold of €40,000/QALY, HDF is cost-effective. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that HDF is cost-effective with a probability of ~81% at a threshold of €40,000/QALY. It is fundamental to measure the outcome also in terms of quality of life. HDF is more cost-effective for younger patients.

Conclusion: HDF can be considered cost-effective compared to HF-HD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cost-effectiveness plane for 50-year-old male patients, using overall health-related quality of life coefficients.Abbreviation: QALYs, quality-adjusted life years.
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f5-ceor-8-531: Cost-effectiveness plane for 50-year-old male patients, using overall health-related quality of life coefficients.Abbreviation: QALYs, quality-adjusted life years.

Mentions: A further analysis was performed to investigate the importance of the qualitative component of the QALYs (QoL) compared to the quantitative one (life years). The effect of using overall HRQoL coefficients (rather than the HRQoL coefficients linked to patient age) on the cohort of 50-year-old male patients is shown in Figure 5. The mean ICER increased to €19,423/QALY but, more importantly, almost 37% of the simulations were on the left of the QALY zero value (less effectiveness, more costs) and, accordingly, the uncertainty around the decision whether to invest in the new therapy was much higher. Even an infinite value of the threshold would not lead to a probability of cost-effectiveness >65% (data not shown). This is caused by the uncertain values of the overall HRQoL coefficients, leading to some cases where one period spent under HF-HD is worth even more than the same period under HDF. This shows that it is crucial to consider the role of QoL is in such evaluations.


Cost-effectiveness analysis of online hemodiafiltration versus high-flux hemodialysis
Cost-effectiveness plane for 50-year-old male patients, using overall health-related quality of life coefficients.Abbreviation: QALYs, quality-adjusted life years.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036827&req=5

f5-ceor-8-531: Cost-effectiveness plane for 50-year-old male patients, using overall health-related quality of life coefficients.Abbreviation: QALYs, quality-adjusted life years.
Mentions: A further analysis was performed to investigate the importance of the qualitative component of the QALYs (QoL) compared to the quantitative one (life years). The effect of using overall HRQoL coefficients (rather than the HRQoL coefficients linked to patient age) on the cohort of 50-year-old male patients is shown in Figure 5. The mean ICER increased to €19,423/QALY but, more importantly, almost 37% of the simulations were on the left of the QALY zero value (less effectiveness, more costs) and, accordingly, the uncertainty around the decision whether to invest in the new therapy was much higher. Even an infinite value of the threshold would not lead to a probability of cost-effectiveness >65% (data not shown). This is caused by the uncertain values of the overall HRQoL coefficients, leading to some cases where one period spent under HF-HD is worth even more than the same period under HDF. This shows that it is crucial to consider the role of QoL is in such evaluations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may lead to better clinical outcomes than high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD), but concerns have been raised about the cost-effectiveness of HDF versus HF-HD. Aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical benefits, in terms of longer survival and better health-related quality of life, are worth the possibly higher costs of HDF compared to HF-HD.

Methods: The analysis comprised a simulation based on the combined results of previous published studies, with the following steps: 1) estimation of the survival function of HF-HD patients from a clinical trial and of HDF patients using the risk reduction estimated in a meta-analysis; 2) simulation of the survival of the same sample of patients as if allocated to HF-HD or HDF using three-state Markov models; and 3) application of state-specific health-related quality of life coefficients and differential costs derived from the literature. Several Monte Carlo simulations were performed, including simulations for patients with different risk profiles, for example, by age (patients aged 40, 50, and 60 years), sex, and diabetic status. Scatter plots of simulations in the cost-effectiveness plane were produced, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were computed.

Results: An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €6,982/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was estimated for the baseline cohort of 50-year-old male patients. Given the commonly accepted threshold of €40,000/QALY, HDF is cost-effective. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that HDF is cost-effective with a probability of ~81% at a threshold of €40,000/QALY. It is fundamental to measure the outcome also in terms of quality of life. HDF is more cost-effective for younger patients.

Conclusion: HDF can be considered cost-effective compared to HF-HD.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus