Limits...
Modulating Behavior in C . elegans Using Electroshock and Antiepileptic Drugs

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a valuable model for understanding the molecular and cellular basis of neurological disorders. The worm offers important physiological similarities to mammalian models such as conserved neuron morphology, ion channels, and neurotransmitters. While a wide-array of behavioral assays are available in C. elegans, an assay for electroshock/electroconvulsion remains absent. Here, we have developed a quantitative behavioral method to assess the locomotor response following electric shock in C. elegans. Electric shock impairs normal locomotion, and induces paralysis and muscle twitching; after a brief recovery period, shocked animals resume normal locomotion. We tested electric shock responses in loss-of-function mutants for unc-25, which encodes the GABA biosynthetic enzyme GAD, and unc-49, which encodes the GABAA receptor. unc-25 and unc-49 mutants have decreased inhibitory GABAergic transmission to muscles, and take significantly more time to recover normal locomotion following electric shock compared to wild-type. Importantly, increased sensitivity of unc-25 and unc-49 mutants to electric shock is rescued by treatment with antiepileptic drugs, such as retigabine. Additionally, we show that pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a GABAA receptor antagonist and proconvulsant in mammalian and C. elegans seizure models, increases susceptibility of worms to electric shock.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental set up for application of electrical shock in worms.(A) Experimental set up includes a dissecting microscope with an ocular camera. The live image feed is displayed on the TV and recorded with a digital video recorder. (B) A zoomed in view of (A) shows a close up schematic of the experimental tube containing liquid solution and worms with copper wire on either side of tube along with measurements. (C) Schematic of worms before the shock and after recovery are represented with sinusoidal wave body shape (denoted by arrows). During the convulsion and paralysis phase, the worms are generally exhibiting unilateral body bends or paralyzed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036823&req=5

pone.0163786.g001: Experimental set up for application of electrical shock in worms.(A) Experimental set up includes a dissecting microscope with an ocular camera. The live image feed is displayed on the TV and recorded with a digital video recorder. (B) A zoomed in view of (A) shows a close up schematic of the experimental tube containing liquid solution and worms with copper wire on either side of tube along with measurements. (C) Schematic of worms before the shock and after recovery are represented with sinusoidal wave body shape (denoted by arrows). During the convulsion and paralysis phase, the worms are generally exhibiting unilateral body bends or paralyzed.

Mentions: The experimental setup consisted of a Grass SD9 stimulator, Grass SD44 stimulator (used as 3 second timer), dissecting microscope with a camera (Hitachi model KP-D20BU), a twelve-inch television monitor, and an HDD and DVR recorder (Magnavox model MDR535H/F7). A schematic of the setup is shown in Fig 1A and 1B.


Modulating Behavior in C . elegans Using Electroshock and Antiepileptic Drugs
Experimental set up for application of electrical shock in worms.(A) Experimental set up includes a dissecting microscope with an ocular camera. The live image feed is displayed on the TV and recorded with a digital video recorder. (B) A zoomed in view of (A) shows a close up schematic of the experimental tube containing liquid solution and worms with copper wire on either side of tube along with measurements. (C) Schematic of worms before the shock and after recovery are represented with sinusoidal wave body shape (denoted by arrows). During the convulsion and paralysis phase, the worms are generally exhibiting unilateral body bends or paralyzed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036823&req=5

pone.0163786.g001: Experimental set up for application of electrical shock in worms.(A) Experimental set up includes a dissecting microscope with an ocular camera. The live image feed is displayed on the TV and recorded with a digital video recorder. (B) A zoomed in view of (A) shows a close up schematic of the experimental tube containing liquid solution and worms with copper wire on either side of tube along with measurements. (C) Schematic of worms before the shock and after recovery are represented with sinusoidal wave body shape (denoted by arrows). During the convulsion and paralysis phase, the worms are generally exhibiting unilateral body bends or paralyzed.
Mentions: The experimental setup consisted of a Grass SD9 stimulator, Grass SD44 stimulator (used as 3 second timer), dissecting microscope with a camera (Hitachi model KP-D20BU), a twelve-inch television monitor, and an HDD and DVR recorder (Magnavox model MDR535H/F7). A schematic of the setup is shown in Fig 1A and 1B.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The microscopic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a valuable model for understanding the molecular and cellular basis of neurological disorders. The worm offers important physiological similarities to mammalian models such as conserved neuron morphology, ion channels, and neurotransmitters. While a wide-array of behavioral assays are available in C. elegans, an assay for electroshock/electroconvulsion remains absent. Here, we have developed a quantitative behavioral method to assess the locomotor response following electric shock in C. elegans. Electric shock impairs normal locomotion, and induces paralysis and muscle twitching; after a brief recovery period, shocked animals resume normal locomotion. We tested electric shock responses in loss-of-function mutants for unc-25, which encodes the GABA biosynthetic enzyme GAD, and unc-49, which encodes the GABAA receptor. unc-25 and unc-49 mutants have decreased inhibitory GABAergic transmission to muscles, and take significantly more time to recover normal locomotion following electric shock compared to wild-type. Importantly, increased sensitivity of unc-25 and unc-49 mutants to electric shock is rescued by treatment with antiepileptic drugs, such as retigabine. Additionally, we show that pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a GABAA receptor antagonist and proconvulsant in mammalian and C. elegans seizure models, increases susceptibility of worms to electric shock.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus