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Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond

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ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MDS representation of the distances among 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni.Countries of origin are represented by different symbols. MDS axes 1–2, 1–3 and 1–4 described 59.3%, 47.4% and 44.4% of the total variation, respectively.
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pone.0163729.g003: MDS representation of the distances among 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni.Countries of origin are represented by different symbols. MDS axes 1–2, 1–3 and 1–4 described 59.3%, 47.4% and 44.4% of the total variation, respectively.

Mentions: The 25 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from our world collection were classified in 23 haplotypes, which means that almost every strain formed a unique haplotype. No haplotype was shared by strains from different countries. MLVA profiles clearly separated the 239 Spanish strains from the world strain collection, showing in most of the cases differences in a range of 4 to 15 loci, even within strains originated from a same country (haplotypes from Australia resulted from 5 to 9-loci variants) (Fig 3). Only two strains, CFBP 3894 from New Zealand and CFBP 5530 from Italy, were SLV (TR79I) and double locus variants (DLV) (TR33I and TR67II) of a Spanish haplotype, respectively, as shown by their close genetic distance on the MDS (Fig 3).


Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
MDS representation of the distances among 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni.Countries of origin are represented by different symbols. MDS axes 1–2, 1–3 and 1–4 described 59.3%, 47.4% and 44.4% of the total variation, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036818&req=5

pone.0163729.g003: MDS representation of the distances among 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni.Countries of origin are represented by different symbols. MDS axes 1–2, 1–3 and 1–4 described 59.3%, 47.4% and 44.4% of the total variation, respectively.
Mentions: The 25 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from our world collection were classified in 23 haplotypes, which means that almost every strain formed a unique haplotype. No haplotype was shared by strains from different countries. MLVA profiles clearly separated the 239 Spanish strains from the world strain collection, showing in most of the cases differences in a range of 4 to 15 loci, even within strains originated from a same country (haplotypes from Australia resulted from 5 to 9-loci variants) (Fig 3). Only two strains, CFBP 3894 from New Zealand and CFBP 5530 from Italy, were SLV (TR79I) and double locus variants (DLV) (TR33I and TR67II) of a Spanish haplotype, respectively, as shown by their close genetic distance on the MDS (Fig 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus