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Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond

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ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Categorical minimum spanning tree from MLVA data (239 strains and 119 haplotypes) representing the genetic diversity of the Spanish strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni in relation with its province of origin.Dot diameter represents the number of strains per haplotype. Numbers represent the 18 genetic clusters identified. Haplotypes in the same genetic cluster are up to quadruple locus variants. Thick links indicate single locus variants and thin links indicates double locus variants. Shaded areas show different clonal complexes in genetic clusters 1 and 2 and are identified with letters (A-E). Genetic clusters not enclosed in dashed lines are formed by a unique clonal complex or singleton. *Indicates the primary founder haplotype.
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pone.0163729.g002: Categorical minimum spanning tree from MLVA data (239 strains and 119 haplotypes) representing the genetic diversity of the Spanish strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni in relation with its province of origin.Dot diameter represents the number of strains per haplotype. Numbers represent the 18 genetic clusters identified. Haplotypes in the same genetic cluster are up to quadruple locus variants. Thick links indicate single locus variants and thin links indicates double locus variants. Shaded areas show different clonal complexes in genetic clusters 1 and 2 and are identified with letters (A-E). Genetic clusters not enclosed in dashed lines are formed by a unique clonal complex or singleton. *Indicates the primary founder haplotype.

Mentions: Out of 239 Spanish strains, 119 MLVA haplotypes were identified. The genetic diversity of the whole collection was HT = 0.363. Genetic diversity indices for each province are shown in Table 2. In order to assess the population structure of the Spanish strains, a categorical minimum spanning tree was built. Eighteen GCs were obtained grouping haplotypes differing by up to four TR loci (Fig 2).


Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
Categorical minimum spanning tree from MLVA data (239 strains and 119 haplotypes) representing the genetic diversity of the Spanish strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni in relation with its province of origin.Dot diameter represents the number of strains per haplotype. Numbers represent the 18 genetic clusters identified. Haplotypes in the same genetic cluster are up to quadruple locus variants. Thick links indicate single locus variants and thin links indicates double locus variants. Shaded areas show different clonal complexes in genetic clusters 1 and 2 and are identified with letters (A-E). Genetic clusters not enclosed in dashed lines are formed by a unique clonal complex or singleton. *Indicates the primary founder haplotype.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036818&req=5

pone.0163729.g002: Categorical minimum spanning tree from MLVA data (239 strains and 119 haplotypes) representing the genetic diversity of the Spanish strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni in relation with its province of origin.Dot diameter represents the number of strains per haplotype. Numbers represent the 18 genetic clusters identified. Haplotypes in the same genetic cluster are up to quadruple locus variants. Thick links indicate single locus variants and thin links indicates double locus variants. Shaded areas show different clonal complexes in genetic clusters 1 and 2 and are identified with letters (A-E). Genetic clusters not enclosed in dashed lines are formed by a unique clonal complex or singleton. *Indicates the primary founder haplotype.
Mentions: Out of 239 Spanish strains, 119 MLVA haplotypes were identified. The genetic diversity of the whole collection was HT = 0.363. Genetic diversity indices for each province are shown in Table 2. In order to assess the population structure of the Spanish strains, a categorical minimum spanning tree was built. Eighteen GCs were obtained grouping haplotypes differing by up to four TR loci (Fig 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus