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Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond

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ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.


Chronological detection of outbreaks of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Spain.1, Badajoz, 2002; 2, Valencia, 2003; 3, Zaragoza, 2004; 4, Alicante, 2006; 5, Huesca, 2008; 6, Lleida, 2008; 7, Teruel, 2009; 8, Navarra, 2009; 9, Mallorca, 2010; 10, Tarragona, 2011; 11, Huelva, 2012. In brackets, number of isolates per province.
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pone.0163729.g001: Chronological detection of outbreaks of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Spain.1, Badajoz, 2002; 2, Valencia, 2003; 3, Zaragoza, 2004; 4, Alicante, 2006; 5, Huesca, 2008; 6, Lleida, 2008; 7, Teruel, 2009; 8, Navarra, 2009; 9, Mallorca, 2010; 10, Tarragona, 2011; 11, Huelva, 2012. In brackets, number of isolates per province.

Mentions: A total of 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were used in this study, 239 isolated from 11 Spanish provinces (Alicante, Badajoz, Huelva, Huesca, Lleida, Mallorca, Navarra, Tarragona, Teruel, Valencia and Zaragoza) as shown in Fig 1 and S1 Table. Spanish strains were isolated from commercial orchards, nurseries and experimental plots since the first detection of this pathogen in Spain in 2002 to 2013. The strains used in this study were obtained from samples received as Laboratory of Reference of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture (IVIA). The Ministry has been consulted about publishing the results and as official laboratory we do not require specific permission for handling these strains.


Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis Reveals Multiple Introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni , the Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits and Almond
Chronological detection of outbreaks of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Spain.1, Badajoz, 2002; 2, Valencia, 2003; 3, Zaragoza, 2004; 4, Alicante, 2006; 5, Huesca, 2008; 6, Lleida, 2008; 7, Teruel, 2009; 8, Navarra, 2009; 9, Mallorca, 2010; 10, Tarragona, 2011; 11, Huelva, 2012. In brackets, number of isolates per province.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036818&req=5

pone.0163729.g001: Chronological detection of outbreaks of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Spain.1, Badajoz, 2002; 2, Valencia, 2003; 3, Zaragoza, 2004; 4, Alicante, 2006; 5, Huesca, 2008; 6, Lleida, 2008; 7, Teruel, 2009; 8, Navarra, 2009; 9, Mallorca, 2010; 10, Tarragona, 2011; 11, Huelva, 2012. In brackets, number of isolates per province.
Mentions: A total of 264 strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were used in this study, 239 isolated from 11 Spanish provinces (Alicante, Badajoz, Huelva, Huesca, Lleida, Mallorca, Navarra, Tarragona, Teruel, Valencia and Zaragoza) as shown in Fig 1 and S1 Table. Spanish strains were isolated from commercial orchards, nurseries and experimental plots since the first detection of this pathogen in Spain in 2002 to 2013. The strains used in this study were obtained from samples received as Laboratory of Reference of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture (IVIA). The Ministry has been consulted about publishing the results and as official laboratory we do not require specific permission for handling these strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

No MeSH data available.