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Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.

Design: Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving.

Setting: Controlled, laboratory, conditions.

Participants: A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years.

Main outcome measures: Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.

Results: Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (ps</ = 0.001).

Conclusions: Five holed salt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

No MeSH data available.


17 (left) and five (right) holed salt shakers used in UK Fish & Chip shops.Image credit: Martin White.
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pone.0163093.g001: 17 (left) and five (right) holed salt shakers used in UK Fish & Chip shops.Image credit: Martin White.

Mentions: Local government officials in some parts of England are taking action to improve the nutritional quality of food from independent takeaways.[18] One method that aims to reduce the salt content of takeaway food is replacing standard, 17-holed, salt shakers (17HSS) with equivalents with only 5 holes (see Fig 1).[19] The five-holed salt shaker (5HSS) attempts to reduce discretionary salt added by servers and–if provided for customer use–consumers. They build on observational findings that discretionary salt use is related more to the size and number of holes in salt shakers, than demographic characteristics.[20]


Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions
17 (left) and five (right) holed salt shakers used in UK Fish & Chip shops.Image credit: Martin White.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036815&req=5

pone.0163093.g001: 17 (left) and five (right) holed salt shakers used in UK Fish & Chip shops.Image credit: Martin White.
Mentions: Local government officials in some parts of England are taking action to improve the nutritional quality of food from independent takeaways.[18] One method that aims to reduce the salt content of takeaway food is replacing standard, 17-holed, salt shakers (17HSS) with equivalents with only 5 holes (see Fig 1).[19] The five-holed salt shaker (5HSS) attempts to reduce discretionary salt added by servers and–if provided for customer use–consumers. They build on observational findings that discretionary salt use is related more to the size and number of holes in salt shakers, than demographic characteristics.[20]

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.

Design: Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving.

Setting: Controlled, laboratory, conditions.

Participants: A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years.

Main outcome measures: Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.

Results: Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (ps</ = 0.001).

Conclusions: Five holed salt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

No MeSH data available.