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Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential “shield effect” of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide—a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L—significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of fungicide treatment on pathogen infectivity.Bars show the mean cumulated incidence at harvest (i.e. 30 days after sowing); dark and light grey refer to the type of symptom: damping-off and tuber necrosis, respectively. The analysis of deviance using a Wald chi-square test shows no significant differences between treatments.
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pone.0163221.g004: Effect of fungicide treatment on pathogen infectivity.Bars show the mean cumulated incidence at harvest (i.e. 30 days after sowing); dark and light grey refer to the type of symptom: damping-off and tuber necrosis, respectively. The analysis of deviance using a Wald chi-square test shows no significant differences between treatments.

Mentions: The Monceren® L treatment had no significant effect on pathogen infectivity (Fig 4). Disease incidence (DI) was not significantly affected by the presence of Monceren® L (p = 0.271). Given that inoculations were performed during the seedling stage, they led to a very high proportion of damping-off disease with (90 ± 5%) or without (78 ± 5%) the fungicide. The statistical analyses we performed showed no significant differences between treatments for the proportion of damping-off (p = 0.116). Only a few necroses were observed with the water treatment (7 ± 3%) and only one plant showing necrosis symptoms (2 ± 3%) was observed in the fungicide treatment. The analysis of deviance using Wald chi-square test showed no significant differences between treatments for the proportion of necroses (p = 0.317). In short, our findings show the ineffectiveness of Monceren® L treatment against the pathogen infectivity once the fungus had reached its host.


Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases
Effect of fungicide treatment on pathogen infectivity.Bars show the mean cumulated incidence at harvest (i.e. 30 days after sowing); dark and light grey refer to the type of symptom: damping-off and tuber necrosis, respectively. The analysis of deviance using a Wald chi-square test shows no significant differences between treatments.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036793&req=5

pone.0163221.g004: Effect of fungicide treatment on pathogen infectivity.Bars show the mean cumulated incidence at harvest (i.e. 30 days after sowing); dark and light grey refer to the type of symptom: damping-off and tuber necrosis, respectively. The analysis of deviance using a Wald chi-square test shows no significant differences between treatments.
Mentions: The Monceren® L treatment had no significant effect on pathogen infectivity (Fig 4). Disease incidence (DI) was not significantly affected by the presence of Monceren® L (p = 0.271). Given that inoculations were performed during the seedling stage, they led to a very high proportion of damping-off disease with (90 ± 5%) or without (78 ± 5%) the fungicide. The statistical analyses we performed showed no significant differences between treatments for the proportion of damping-off (p = 0.116). Only a few necroses were observed with the water treatment (7 ± 3%) and only one plant showing necrosis symptoms (2 ± 3%) was observed in the fungicide treatment. The analysis of deviance using Wald chi-square test showed no significant differences between treatments for the proportion of necroses (p = 0.317). In short, our findings show the ineffectiveness of Monceren® L treatment against the pathogen infectivity once the fungus had reached its host.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential “shield effect” of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide—a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L—significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use.

No MeSH data available.