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Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

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ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


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X-ray lateral exposure for Case 7 (feline) (A) and Case 2 (canine) (B).Notes: Left: 2 weeks after third treatment and right: 1 year after third treatment showing that there is no metastasis.
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f5-ijn-11-4849: X-ray lateral exposure for Case 7 (feline) (A) and Case 2 (canine) (B).Notes: Left: 2 weeks after third treatment and right: 1 year after third treatment showing that there is no metastasis.

Mentions: Furthermore, in Case 2 (canine), X-ray image showed there was no metastasis in the internal organs, and ultrasound image showed the tumor location, shape, and dimensions (Figure S3). Tumor statuses before, during, or after treatments are seen in Figure 4, and other photographs for Case 2 are shown in Figure S4. For the tissue sections, moderately undifferentiated tumor mass characterized by basophilic cells with condensed nuclear chromatin lining the acini are observed (Figure 4A). The connective tissue stroma was infiltrated with mononuclear cells of mainly lymphocyte and macrophage origin but also contained some multinucleated giant tumor cells (Grade III). On the other hand, after treatment (Figure 4B) histopathology revealed some necrosis of acini accompanied with cellular stroma (Grade 0). No metastasis was observed based on X-ray diffraction images (Figure 5). Similarly, Case 3 has been explained in the Supplementary materials, along with photographic images taken before treatment, 2 weeks after treatment, and 1 year after treatment (Figure S5, photographs). Histopathology images for Case 3 before treatment shows the tumor grade change from Grade III before treatment to Grade 0 after the treatment (Figure S6). Furthermore, the X-ray images before and after treatment show there is no metastasis in both statuses (Figure S7).


Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis
X-ray lateral exposure for Case 7 (feline) (A) and Case 2 (canine) (B).Notes: Left: 2 weeks after third treatment and right: 1 year after third treatment showing that there is no metastasis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036785&req=5

f5-ijn-11-4849: X-ray lateral exposure for Case 7 (feline) (A) and Case 2 (canine) (B).Notes: Left: 2 weeks after third treatment and right: 1 year after third treatment showing that there is no metastasis.
Mentions: Furthermore, in Case 2 (canine), X-ray image showed there was no metastasis in the internal organs, and ultrasound image showed the tumor location, shape, and dimensions (Figure S3). Tumor statuses before, during, or after treatments are seen in Figure 4, and other photographs for Case 2 are shown in Figure S4. For the tissue sections, moderately undifferentiated tumor mass characterized by basophilic cells with condensed nuclear chromatin lining the acini are observed (Figure 4A). The connective tissue stroma was infiltrated with mononuclear cells of mainly lymphocyte and macrophage origin but also contained some multinucleated giant tumor cells (Grade III). On the other hand, after treatment (Figure 4B) histopathology revealed some necrosis of acini accompanied with cellular stroma (Grade 0). No metastasis was observed based on X-ray diffraction images (Figure 5). Similarly, Case 3 has been explained in the Supplementary materials, along with photographic images taken before treatment, 2 weeks after treatment, and 1 year after treatment (Figure S5, photographs). Histopathology images for Case 3 before treatment shows the tumor grade change from Grade III before treatment to Grade 0 after the treatment (Figure S6). Furthermore, the X-ray images before and after treatment show there is no metastasis in both statuses (Figure S7).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus