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Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photographs for Case 7 (feline) with two tumors (Tumor 6: anterior thoracic opened tumor; and Tumor 10: caudoinguinal tumors) and histopathology images (Tumor 6) showing the tumor regression before and/or after each treatment.Notes: (A) Before first treatment, (B) before second treatment, (C) after third treatment, (D) before third treatment, and (E) 1 year after third treatment, no relapse is observed. After 1 year, the tumors completely disappeared, thus we were unable to take histopathology data for the animals. Magnification of histopathology images stained with H&E: (A) and (D) ×100; (B) ×200.Abbreviation: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin.
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f3-ijn-11-4849: Photographs for Case 7 (feline) with two tumors (Tumor 6: anterior thoracic opened tumor; and Tumor 10: caudoinguinal tumors) and histopathology images (Tumor 6) showing the tumor regression before and/or after each treatment.Notes: (A) Before first treatment, (B) before second treatment, (C) after third treatment, (D) before third treatment, and (E) 1 year after third treatment, no relapse is observed. After 1 year, the tumors completely disappeared, thus we were unable to take histopathology data for the animals. Magnification of histopathology images stained with H&E: (A) and (D) ×100; (B) ×200.Abbreviation: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin.

Mentions: After establishing the dosage of an effective laser application time, the PPTT optimized conditions were conducted multiple times (0, 2, and 4 weeks) and tumor volumes evaluated every 2 weeks until complete regression, as shown in Figure 2. Before any PPTT treatment, tumors of all the animals showed variant growth, and after PPTT, obvious tumor regression was observed. All 13 tumors with variant volumes regressed with an average half-life of about 2 weeks and completely disappeared within 6–8 weeks. Images of tumor change and relevant histopathology in Case 7 (feline) show the tumor regression process (Tumor 6: open tumor and Tumor 10: close tumor). Although both tumors have different malignancy stages (Table 1), the images indicate that both tumors respond positively to the treatment, and no tissue burning was seen after gentle treatments. Histopathological examinations were carried out on tumors to investigate the malignancy of the tumors before and after PPTT. Photographic images (Figure 3), and also complete images of the case (Figure S2), showed the tumor statuses before, during, and after treatments. As shown in Figure 3A, before treatment, Case 7 (Tumor 6) was diagnosed with well-differentiated and highly malignant adenocarcinoma according to histopathology. Figure 3A showed that the cells were arranged either in tubular pattern or solid masses, in which the acini were arranged in groups and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue stroma. The stroma was infiltrated with inflammatory cells, mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. The acini were lined by secretory cells without a basement membrane, and the nucleus appeared to be deeply basophilic with an enlarged, clear nucleolus. Poorly undifferentiated neoplastic mass characterized by a cluster of neoplastic cells with deeply basophilic cytoplasm and a vesiculated nucleus was observed. The tumor mass appeared highly cellular with low fibrous connective tissue stroma and loss of Grade IV acinar pattern (solid carcinoma).


Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis
Photographs for Case 7 (feline) with two tumors (Tumor 6: anterior thoracic opened tumor; and Tumor 10: caudoinguinal tumors) and histopathology images (Tumor 6) showing the tumor regression before and/or after each treatment.Notes: (A) Before first treatment, (B) before second treatment, (C) after third treatment, (D) before third treatment, and (E) 1 year after third treatment, no relapse is observed. After 1 year, the tumors completely disappeared, thus we were unable to take histopathology data for the animals. Magnification of histopathology images stained with H&E: (A) and (D) ×100; (B) ×200.Abbreviation: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036785&req=5

f3-ijn-11-4849: Photographs for Case 7 (feline) with two tumors (Tumor 6: anterior thoracic opened tumor; and Tumor 10: caudoinguinal tumors) and histopathology images (Tumor 6) showing the tumor regression before and/or after each treatment.Notes: (A) Before first treatment, (B) before second treatment, (C) after third treatment, (D) before third treatment, and (E) 1 year after third treatment, no relapse is observed. After 1 year, the tumors completely disappeared, thus we were unable to take histopathology data for the animals. Magnification of histopathology images stained with H&E: (A) and (D) ×100; (B) ×200.Abbreviation: H&E, hematoxylin and eosin.
Mentions: After establishing the dosage of an effective laser application time, the PPTT optimized conditions were conducted multiple times (0, 2, and 4 weeks) and tumor volumes evaluated every 2 weeks until complete regression, as shown in Figure 2. Before any PPTT treatment, tumors of all the animals showed variant growth, and after PPTT, obvious tumor regression was observed. All 13 tumors with variant volumes regressed with an average half-life of about 2 weeks and completely disappeared within 6–8 weeks. Images of tumor change and relevant histopathology in Case 7 (feline) show the tumor regression process (Tumor 6: open tumor and Tumor 10: close tumor). Although both tumors have different malignancy stages (Table 1), the images indicate that both tumors respond positively to the treatment, and no tissue burning was seen after gentle treatments. Histopathological examinations were carried out on tumors to investigate the malignancy of the tumors before and after PPTT. Photographic images (Figure 3), and also complete images of the case (Figure S2), showed the tumor statuses before, during, and after treatments. As shown in Figure 3A, before treatment, Case 7 (Tumor 6) was diagnosed with well-differentiated and highly malignant adenocarcinoma according to histopathology. Figure 3A showed that the cells were arranged either in tubular pattern or solid masses, in which the acini were arranged in groups and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue stroma. The stroma was infiltrated with inflammatory cells, mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. The acini were lined by secretory cells without a basement membrane, and the nucleus appeared to be deeply basophilic with an enlarged, clear nucleolus. Poorly undifferentiated neoplastic mass characterized by a cluster of neoplastic cells with deeply basophilic cytoplasm and a vesiculated nucleus was observed. The tumor mass appeared highly cellular with low fibrous connective tissue stroma and loss of Grade IV acinar pattern (solid carcinoma).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus