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Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


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Characterization of PEGylated AuNRs (length 26±3 nm, width 5±0.8 nm).Notes: (A) TEM image with 100 nm scale bar. (B) UV–Vis absorbance spectra showing the SPR peaks of AuNRs. (C) Corresponding histograms of the lengths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (D) Corresponding histograms of the widths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (E) Zeta potential data of the as-synthesized rods. (F) Zeta potential data of PEGylated AuNRs.Abbreviations: AuNRs, gold nanorods; TEM, transmission electron microscope; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; UV–Vis, ulltraviolet–visible.
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f1-ijn-11-4849: Characterization of PEGylated AuNRs (length 26±3 nm, width 5±0.8 nm).Notes: (A) TEM image with 100 nm scale bar. (B) UV–Vis absorbance spectra showing the SPR peaks of AuNRs. (C) Corresponding histograms of the lengths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (D) Corresponding histograms of the widths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (E) Zeta potential data of the as-synthesized rods. (F) Zeta potential data of PEGylated AuNRs.Abbreviations: AuNRs, gold nanorods; TEM, transmission electron microscope; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; UV–Vis, ulltraviolet–visible.

Mentions: AuNRs were prepared according to the literature.28 Briefly, HAuCl4 (5 mL, 1 mM; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was added to 5 mL of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, 0.20 M; Sigma-Aldrich). AgNO3 (250 μL, 4 mM; Sigma-Aldrich) was then added and the pH of the solution adjusted to 1–1.15. Around 70 μL of ascorbic acid (78.8 mM; Sigma-Aldrich) was added to the solution until the solution became clear. Ice-cold NaBH4 (15 μL, 0.01 M; Sigma-Aldrich) was injected into the unstirred growth solution immediately and then allowed to react for 6 hours. The resulting AuNRs had dimensions of approximately 25×5 nm (see “Formulation and characterization of the AuNRs” section, Figure 1). AuNRs were concentrated by centrifuging at 19,745 rcf for 15 minutes. The pellet was redispersed in water and centrifuged at 19,745 rcf for an additional 15 minutes. Then methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol (m-PEG-Th, PEG; Laysan Bio, Arab, AL, USA) was added to the CTAB-conjugated AuNRs and was incubated overnight in a shaker. A final ratio of about 20,000 PEG molecules per NP was achieved after centrifugation to remove unconjugated PEG.


Treatment of natural mammary gland tumors in canines and felines using gold nanorods-assisted plasmonic photothermal therapy to induce tumor apoptosis
Characterization of PEGylated AuNRs (length 26±3 nm, width 5±0.8 nm).Notes: (A) TEM image with 100 nm scale bar. (B) UV–Vis absorbance spectra showing the SPR peaks of AuNRs. (C) Corresponding histograms of the lengths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (D) Corresponding histograms of the widths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (E) Zeta potential data of the as-synthesized rods. (F) Zeta potential data of PEGylated AuNRs.Abbreviations: AuNRs, gold nanorods; TEM, transmission electron microscope; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; UV–Vis, ulltraviolet–visible.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036785&req=5

f1-ijn-11-4849: Characterization of PEGylated AuNRs (length 26±3 nm, width 5±0.8 nm).Notes: (A) TEM image with 100 nm scale bar. (B) UV–Vis absorbance spectra showing the SPR peaks of AuNRs. (C) Corresponding histograms of the lengths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (D) Corresponding histograms of the widths of the 100 AuNRs particles counted. (E) Zeta potential data of the as-synthesized rods. (F) Zeta potential data of PEGylated AuNRs.Abbreviations: AuNRs, gold nanorods; TEM, transmission electron microscope; SPR, surface plasmon resonance; UV–Vis, ulltraviolet–visible.
Mentions: AuNRs were prepared according to the literature.28 Briefly, HAuCl4 (5 mL, 1 mM; Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was added to 5 mL of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, 0.20 M; Sigma-Aldrich). AgNO3 (250 μL, 4 mM; Sigma-Aldrich) was then added and the pH of the solution adjusted to 1–1.15. Around 70 μL of ascorbic acid (78.8 mM; Sigma-Aldrich) was added to the solution until the solution became clear. Ice-cold NaBH4 (15 μL, 0.01 M; Sigma-Aldrich) was injected into the unstirred growth solution immediately and then allowed to react for 6 hours. The resulting AuNRs had dimensions of approximately 25×5 nm (see “Formulation and characterization of the AuNRs” section, Figure 1). AuNRs were concentrated by centrifuging at 19,745 rcf for 15 minutes. The pellet was redispersed in water and centrifuged at 19,745 rcf for an additional 15 minutes. Then methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) thiol (m-PEG-Th, PEG; Laysan Bio, Arab, AL, USA) was added to the CTAB-conjugated AuNRs and was incubated overnight in a shaker. A final ratio of about 20,000 PEG molecules per NP was achieved after centrifugation to remove unconjugated PEG.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a cancer therapy in which gold nanorods are injected at the site of a tumor before near-infrared light is transiently applied to the tumor causing localized cell death. Previously, PPTT studies have been carried out on xenograft mice models. Herein, we report a study showing the feasibility of PPTT as applied to natural tumors in the mammary glands of dogs and cats, which more realistically represent their human equivalents at the molecular level. We optimized a regime of three low PPTT doses at 2-week intervals that ablated tumors mainly via apoptosis in 13 natural mammary gland tumors from seven animals. Histopathology, X-ray, blood profiles, and comprehensive examinations were used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of tumor statuses before and after treatment. Histopathology results showed an obvious reduction in the cancer grade shortly after the first treatment and a complete regression after the third treatment. Blood tests showed no obvious change in liver and kidney functions. Similarly, X-ray diffraction showed no metastasis after 1 year of treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests the feasibility of applying the gold nanorods-PPTT on natural tumors in dogs and cats without any relapse or toxicity effects after 1 year of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus