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Acoustic, Visual and Spatial Indicators for the Description of the Soundscape of Waterfront Areas with and without Road Traffic Flow

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to the distances between these areas, it is not possible to go as regularly as would be necessary to satisfy any needs. Even if cities are densely populated, the presence of a sea or riverfront offers the possibility of large restorative places, or at least with potential features for being the natural core of an urban nucleus after a renewal intervention. This study evaluates the soundscape of the Naples waterfront, presenting an overview of the most significant visual, acoustic and spatial factors related to the pedestrian areas, as well as areas open to road traffic and others where the road traffic is limited. The factors were chosen with feature selection methods and artificial neural networks. The results show how certain factors, such as the perimeter between the water and promenade, the visibility of the sea or the density of green areas, can affect the perception of the soundscape quality in the areas with road traffic. In the pedestrian areas, acoustic factors, such as loudness or the A-weighted sound level exceeded for 10% of the measurement duration (LA10), influence the perceived quality of the soundscape.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of relative importance of the predictors on the results calculated with the Olden et al. method for the pedestrian areas. Values higher than zero mean a positive relative effect, and lower than zero, a negative relative effect. The variables selected were spatial metric “split” calculated for the land use “singular buildings” (SPLIT_Singular), spatial metric “proximity” calculated for the land use “food services” (PROX_MN_Food), “percentage of generic buildings in the aerial photograph within a distance of 100 m” (CP_Building_100), sound pressure level exceeded 50% of time (LA50), roughness (R), and A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq), sound pressure level exceeded 10% of time and loudness (N5).
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ijerph-13-00934-f011: Percentage of relative importance of the predictors on the results calculated with the Olden et al. method for the pedestrian areas. Values higher than zero mean a positive relative effect, and lower than zero, a negative relative effect. The variables selected were spatial metric “split” calculated for the land use “singular buildings” (SPLIT_Singular), spatial metric “proximity” calculated for the land use “food services” (PROX_MN_Food), “percentage of generic buildings in the aerial photograph within a distance of 100 m” (CP_Building_100), sound pressure level exceeded 50% of time (LA50), roughness (R), and A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq), sound pressure level exceeded 10% of time and loudness (N5).

Mentions: Figure 11 shows the relative importance of the variables within the model of the pedestrian areas. The acoustic parameters are all negatively correlated with the soundscape, especially the 5th percentile of loudness (N5) with a −43.8% of influence (considered similar to the real perception of the level of noise). The higher the loudness is, the more unpleasant the soundscape is. The noise levels that are exceeded 10% of the time also have a negative influence on the soundscape perception (−30.0%). Roughness and the percentile LA50 are the factors with less influence on the soundscape appraisals.


Acoustic, Visual and Spatial Indicators for the Description of the Soundscape of Waterfront Areas with and without Road Traffic Flow
Percentage of relative importance of the predictors on the results calculated with the Olden et al. method for the pedestrian areas. Values higher than zero mean a positive relative effect, and lower than zero, a negative relative effect. The variables selected were spatial metric “split” calculated for the land use “singular buildings” (SPLIT_Singular), spatial metric “proximity” calculated for the land use “food services” (PROX_MN_Food), “percentage of generic buildings in the aerial photograph within a distance of 100 m” (CP_Building_100), sound pressure level exceeded 50% of time (LA50), roughness (R), and A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq), sound pressure level exceeded 10% of time and loudness (N5).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036766&req=5

ijerph-13-00934-f011: Percentage of relative importance of the predictors on the results calculated with the Olden et al. method for the pedestrian areas. Values higher than zero mean a positive relative effect, and lower than zero, a negative relative effect. The variables selected were spatial metric “split” calculated for the land use “singular buildings” (SPLIT_Singular), spatial metric “proximity” calculated for the land use “food services” (PROX_MN_Food), “percentage of generic buildings in the aerial photograph within a distance of 100 m” (CP_Building_100), sound pressure level exceeded 50% of time (LA50), roughness (R), and A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq), sound pressure level exceeded 10% of time and loudness (N5).
Mentions: Figure 11 shows the relative importance of the variables within the model of the pedestrian areas. The acoustic parameters are all negatively correlated with the soundscape, especially the 5th percentile of loudness (N5) with a −43.8% of influence (considered similar to the real perception of the level of noise). The higher the loudness is, the more unpleasant the soundscape is. The noise levels that are exceeded 10% of the time also have a negative influence on the soundscape perception (−30.0%). Roughness and the percentile LA50 are the factors with less influence on the soundscape appraisals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to the distances between these areas, it is not possible to go as regularly as would be necessary to satisfy any needs. Even if cities are densely populated, the presence of a sea or riverfront offers the possibility of large restorative places, or at least with potential features for being the natural core of an urban nucleus after a renewal intervention. This study evaluates the soundscape of the Naples waterfront, presenting an overview of the most significant visual, acoustic and spatial factors related to the pedestrian areas, as well as areas open to road traffic and others where the road traffic is limited. The factors were chosen with feature selection methods and artificial neural networks. The results show how certain factors, such as the perimeter between the water and promenade, the visibility of the sea or the density of green areas, can affect the perception of the soundscape quality in the areas with road traffic. In the pedestrian areas, acoustic factors, such as loudness or the A-weighted sound level exceeded for 10% of the measurement duration (LA10), influence the perceived quality of the soundscape.

No MeSH data available.