Limits...
Dust and Cobalt Levels in the Austrian Tungsten Industry: Workplace and Human Biomonitoring Data

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In general, routine industrial hygiene (IH) data are collected not to serve for scientific research but to check for compliance with occupational limit values. In the preparation of an occupational retrospective cohort study it is vital to test the validity of the exposure assessment based on incomplete (temporal coverage, departments) IH data. Existing IH data from a large hard metal plant was collected. Individual workers’ exposure per year and department was estimated based on linear regression of log-transformed exposure data for dust, tungsten, and cobalt. Estimated data were back-transformed, and for cobalt the validity of the estimates was confirmed by comparison with individual cobalt concentrations in urine. Air monitoring data were available from 1985 to 2012 and urine tests from the years 2008 to 2014. A declining trend and significant differences among departments was evident for all three air pollutants. The estimated time trend fitted the time trend in urine values well. At 1 mg/m3, cobalt in the air leads to an excretion of approximately 200 µg/L cobalt in urine. Cobalt levels in urine were significantly higher in smokers with an interaction effect between smoking and air concentrations. Exposure estimates of individual workers are generally feasible in the examined plant, although some departments are not documented sufficiently enough. Additional information (expert knowledge) is needed to fill these gaps.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Association between cobalt (Co) in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for (current) nonsmokers; (b) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for smokers; (c) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for workers with missing smoking information.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036763&req=5

ijerph-13-00931-f002: (a) Association between cobalt (Co) in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for (current) nonsmokers; (b) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for smokers; (c) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for workers with missing smoking information.

Mentions: Also, cobalt concentration in urine declined over time. Of the 1166 values 139 were reported to be at or below 1 µg/L. A total of 229 values exceeded the Austrian limit value of 10 µg/L. Cobalt in the air (estimated from the regression model described in Table 1 after back-transformation from logarithmic values) was associated with cobalt values in urine (Table 3). Figure 2a–c depicts the association between (estimated) cobalt in the air and cobalt in urine for current smokers (a); nonsmokers (b); and for workers without information on current smoking (c) separately.


Dust and Cobalt Levels in the Austrian Tungsten Industry: Workplace and Human Biomonitoring Data
(a) Association between cobalt (Co) in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for (current) nonsmokers; (b) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for smokers; (c) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for workers with missing smoking information.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036763&req=5

ijerph-13-00931-f002: (a) Association between cobalt (Co) in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for (current) nonsmokers; (b) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for smokers; (c) association between cobalt in the air (estimated from regression analysis) and cobalt in urine for workers with missing smoking information.
Mentions: Also, cobalt concentration in urine declined over time. Of the 1166 values 139 were reported to be at or below 1 µg/L. A total of 229 values exceeded the Austrian limit value of 10 µg/L. Cobalt in the air (estimated from the regression model described in Table 1 after back-transformation from logarithmic values) was associated with cobalt values in urine (Table 3). Figure 2a–c depicts the association between (estimated) cobalt in the air and cobalt in urine for current smokers (a); nonsmokers (b); and for workers without information on current smoking (c) separately.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In general, routine industrial hygiene (IH) data are collected not to serve for scientific research but to check for compliance with occupational limit values. In the preparation of an occupational retrospective cohort study it is vital to test the validity of the exposure assessment based on incomplete (temporal coverage, departments) IH data. Existing IH data from a large hard metal plant was collected. Individual workers’ exposure per year and department was estimated based on linear regression of log-transformed exposure data for dust, tungsten, and cobalt. Estimated data were back-transformed, and for cobalt the validity of the estimates was confirmed by comparison with individual cobalt concentrations in urine. Air monitoring data were available from 1985 to 2012 and urine tests from the years 2008 to 2014. A declining trend and significant differences among departments was evident for all three air pollutants. The estimated time trend fitted the time trend in urine values well. At 1 mg/m3, cobalt in the air leads to an excretion of approximately 200 µg/L cobalt in urine. Cobalt levels in urine were significantly higher in smokers with an interaction effect between smoking and air concentrations. Exposure estimates of individual workers are generally feasible in the examined plant, although some departments are not documented sufficiently enough. Additional information (expert knowledge) is needed to fill these gaps.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus