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Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

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ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth by mixture; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna by mixture; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio by mixture.
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ijerph-13-00925-f003: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth by mixture; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna by mixture; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio by mixture.

Mentions: Based on the EC50 values of the independent toxicity experiments, the concentration of the mixture was calculated as a percentage of the total concentration (%). The relationship between the concentration of the mixture and the growth inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris is shown in Figure 3A. There was a good linear relationship between the concentration of the mixture and the growth inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris. The 96-h EC50 of the mixture of BP and DEET on C. vulgaris was 46.31% (95% confidence interval: 42.04%–51.21%). In this case, the concentration of BP in the mixture was 3.43 mg/L, and the concentration of DEET was 128.44 mg/L. By calculating the TU values of BP and DEET using Equation (1), respectively, the total TU value at this point of the mixture equaled 1. Therefore, the toxicity of BP plus DEET combination showed an additive effect [16].


Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products
(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth by mixture; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna by mixture; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio by mixture.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036758&req=5

ijerph-13-00925-f003: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth by mixture; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna by mixture; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio by mixture.
Mentions: Based on the EC50 values of the independent toxicity experiments, the concentration of the mixture was calculated as a percentage of the total concentration (%). The relationship between the concentration of the mixture and the growth inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris is shown in Figure 3A. There was a good linear relationship between the concentration of the mixture and the growth inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris. The 96-h EC50 of the mixture of BP and DEET on C. vulgaris was 46.31% (95% confidence interval: 42.04%–51.21%). In this case, the concentration of BP in the mixture was 3.43 mg/L, and the concentration of DEET was 128.44 mg/L. By calculating the TU values of BP and DEET using Equation (1), respectively, the total TU value at this point of the mixture equaled 1. Therefore, the toxicity of BP plus DEET combination showed an additive effect [16].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.