Limits...
Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of DEET; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of DEET; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of DEET.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036758&req=5

ijerph-13-00925-f002: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of DEET; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of DEET; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of DEET.

Mentions: When the concentrations of DEET were between 79.04 and 395.20 mg/L, there was an obvious inhibition effect on C. vulgaris. With the increasing in the concentrations, the inhibition effect also increased. The C. vulgaris growth inhibition ratio by DEET concentration is shown in Figure 2A. The linear regression equation used was as follows:y = −4.459 + 0.202x, (x: 79.04 mg/L~395.20 mg/L),(5)where x is the DEET concentration, and y is the inhibition ratio on C. vulgaris (%).


Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products
(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of DEET; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of DEET; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of DEET.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036758&req=5

ijerph-13-00925-f002: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of DEET; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of DEET; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of DEET.
Mentions: When the concentrations of DEET were between 79.04 and 395.20 mg/L, there was an obvious inhibition effect on C. vulgaris. With the increasing in the concentrations, the inhibition effect also increased. The C. vulgaris growth inhibition ratio by DEET concentration is shown in Figure 2A. The linear regression equation used was as follows:y = −4.459 + 0.202x, (x: 79.04 mg/L~395.20 mg/L),(5)where x is the DEET concentration, and y is the inhibition ratio on C. vulgaris (%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.