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Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products

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ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.


(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of BP; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of BP; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of BP.
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ijerph-13-00925-f001: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of BP; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of BP; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of BP.

Mentions: The growth inhibition by BP concentration is shown in Figure 1A. The linear regression equation between BP concentration and its inhibition ratio wasy = −10.216 + 8.979x, (x: 2.00 mg/L~10.00 mg/L),(2)where x is the BP concentration, and y is the inhibition ratio on C. vulgaris growth (%).


Acute Toxicity and Ecological Risk Assessment of Benzophenone and N,N -Diethyl-3 Methylbenzamide in Personal Care Products
(A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of BP; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of BP; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of BP.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036758&req=5

ijerph-13-00925-f001: (A) The inhibition ratio of C. vulgaris growth of BP; (B) The lethal ratio of D. magna of BP; (C) The lethal ratio of B. rerio of BP.
Mentions: The growth inhibition by BP concentration is shown in Figure 1A. The linear regression equation between BP concentration and its inhibition ratio wasy = −10.216 + 8.979x, (x: 2.00 mg/L~10.00 mg/L),(2)where x is the BP concentration, and y is the inhibition ratio on C. vulgaris growth (%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Benzophenone (BP) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) are two chemicals often used in personal care products (PCPs). There is a lack of systematic ecotoxicological evaluations about the two chemicals to aquatic organisms. In the present study, the acute toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia Magana, and Brachydanio rerio were tested and the ecotoxicological risks were evaluated. For BP, the 96-h half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) on C. vulgaris was 6.86 mg/L; the 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) on D. magana was 7.63 mg/L; the 96-h LC50 on B. rerio was 14.73 mg/L. For DEET, those were 270.72 mg/L, 40.74 mg/L, and 109.67 mg/L, respectively. The mixture toxicity of BP and DEET, on C. vulgaris, D. magana, and B. rerio all showed an additive effect. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for BP and DEET by assessment factor (AF) method are 0.003 mg/L and 0.407 mg/L, respectively. Both are lower than the concentrations detected from environment at present, verifying that BP and DEET are low-risk chemicals to the environment.

No MeSH data available.