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The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development

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ABSTRACT

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The number of cases of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in Taiwan, overall and by region, 1998–2013.
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ijerph-13-00890-f001: The number of cases of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in Taiwan, overall and by region, 1998–2013.

Mentions: A higher incidence was observed during the summer months in Asia [63,64,65], and epidemics recur with a seasonal pattern. Some studies have also reported a variation of the peak season between different years [25,66]. In Taiwan, a surveillance system was established at the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) in 1998 to assess the epidemiologic features of EV71 infection [17]. Patients who were hospitalized for HFMD/herpangina were reported to the Taiwan CDC [3,17]. From March 1998 through December 2013, epidemic peaks occurred every year, with the highest number of cases occurring during the summer season (Figure 1). Most cases of HFMD occurred in children aged five years old or younger; males had a higher incidence rate of HFMD than females.


The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development
The number of cases of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in Taiwan, overall and by region, 1998–2013.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036723&req=5

ijerph-13-00890-f001: The number of cases of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in Taiwan, overall and by region, 1998–2013.
Mentions: A higher incidence was observed during the summer months in Asia [63,64,65], and epidemics recur with a seasonal pattern. Some studies have also reported a variation of the peak season between different years [25,66]. In Taiwan, a surveillance system was established at the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) in 1998 to assess the epidemiologic features of EV71 infection [17]. Patients who were hospitalized for HFMD/herpangina were reported to the Taiwan CDC [3,17]. From March 1998 through December 2013, epidemic peaks occurred every year, with the highest number of cases occurring during the summer season (Figure 1). Most cases of HFMD occurred in children aged five years old or younger; males had a higher incidence rate of HFMD than females.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus