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Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China

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ABSTRACT

This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09–3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

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Source analysis of PAHs through diagnostic ratios. (a) Plot of Fla/Pry vs. Phe/Anth; (b) Plot of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) vs. Ind/(Ind + BgP).
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ijerph-13-00878-f004: Source analysis of PAHs through diagnostic ratios. (a) Plot of Fla/Pry vs. Phe/Anth; (b) Plot of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) vs. Ind/(Ind + BgP).

Mentions: As isomers, Anth is thermodynamically more unstable than Phe. The Phe/Anth value >10 suggests petrogenic contamination, whereas the value <10 implies a pyrolytic source [11]. Pyr is thermodynamically more stable than Fla. Fla/Pyr > 1 is a feature of the pyrolytic process, while Fla/Pyr < 1 indicates a petroleum origin [7]. As shown in Figure 4a, the Phe/Anth ratios of soil samples ranged from 7.58 to 47.23. All the samples had Phe/Anth ratios higher than 10, except for sites px, dt and hm. This suggested that soil PAHs might be mainly from petrogenic sources. Fla/Pyr values in sites px, dt, hm and qt were mostly less than 1, indicating petrogenic sources of PAHs. This was in agreement with the results of Phe/Anth ratios (Figure 4a). However, the range of Fla/Pyr ratios in samples of sites hr and yz was from 0.94 to 1.24, suggesting a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.


Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China
Source analysis of PAHs through diagnostic ratios. (a) Plot of Fla/Pry vs. Phe/Anth; (b) Plot of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) vs. Ind/(Ind + BgP).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036711&req=5

ijerph-13-00878-f004: Source analysis of PAHs through diagnostic ratios. (a) Plot of Fla/Pry vs. Phe/Anth; (b) Plot of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) vs. Ind/(Ind + BgP).
Mentions: As isomers, Anth is thermodynamically more unstable than Phe. The Phe/Anth value >10 suggests petrogenic contamination, whereas the value <10 implies a pyrolytic source [11]. Pyr is thermodynamically more stable than Fla. Fla/Pyr > 1 is a feature of the pyrolytic process, while Fla/Pyr < 1 indicates a petroleum origin [7]. As shown in Figure 4a, the Phe/Anth ratios of soil samples ranged from 7.58 to 47.23. All the samples had Phe/Anth ratios higher than 10, except for sites px, dt and hm. This suggested that soil PAHs might be mainly from petrogenic sources. Fla/Pyr values in sites px, dt, hm and qt were mostly less than 1, indicating petrogenic sources of PAHs. This was in agreement with the results of Phe/Anth ratios (Figure 4a). However, the range of Fla/Pyr ratios in samples of sites hr and yz was from 0.94 to 1.24, suggesting a mix of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 &mu;g/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09&ndash;3494.81 &mu;g/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus