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Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of respondents who washed hands with soap by education, district, wealth, and access to water and sanitation. Notes: <pri = Less than primary education, Pri = Primary education completed, Pre-sec = Pre-secondary education, Sec = Secondary education or higher. Al = Alor, ST = Sumba Timur, LU = Luwu Utara, Ta = Takalar, Ba = Barru, Ja = Jayapura. Wealth 1 = Poorest, 2 = Poorer, 3 = Middle, 4 = Richer, 5 = Richest.
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ijerph-13-00868-f001: Percentage of respondents who washed hands with soap by education, district, wealth, and access to water and sanitation. Notes: <pri = Less than primary education, Pri = Primary education completed, Pre-sec = Pre-secondary education, Sec = Secondary education or higher. Al = Alor, ST = Sumba Timur, LU = Luwu Utara, Ta = Takalar, Ba = Barru, Ja = Jayapura. Wealth 1 = Poorest, 2 = Poorer, 3 = Middle, 4 = Richer, 5 = Richest.

Mentions: The respondent’s education, the district the household was located in, household wealth, and access to water and sanitation were significantly associated with the behavior of handwashing with soap, and the calculated prevalence is presented in Figure 1. While over 58% of respondents with primary, pre-secondary, or secondary or higher education washed their hands with soap, only 43.5% of respondents with less than primary education washed their hands with soap. A large gap in the prevalence of handwashing with soap also existed between the six districts, ranging from 32.4% in Alor to 83.6% in Takalar. A positive curvilinear trend in the percentage of handwashing with soap was found for the quintiles of wealth. In the lowest wealth quintile, only 27.5% of respondents washed hands with soap, while 72.0% in the highest quintile performed handwashing with soap. Lastly, the majority of respondents, 58.2% and 59.5%, respectively, reported to have access to water and a private toilet washed their hands with soap.


Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis
Percentage of respondents who washed hands with soap by education, district, wealth, and access to water and sanitation. Notes: <pri = Less than primary education, Pri = Primary education completed, Pre-sec = Pre-secondary education, Sec = Secondary education or higher. Al = Alor, ST = Sumba Timur, LU = Luwu Utara, Ta = Takalar, Ba = Barru, Ja = Jayapura. Wealth 1 = Poorest, 2 = Poorer, 3 = Middle, 4 = Richer, 5 = Richest.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036701&req=5

ijerph-13-00868-f001: Percentage of respondents who washed hands with soap by education, district, wealth, and access to water and sanitation. Notes: <pri = Less than primary education, Pri = Primary education completed, Pre-sec = Pre-secondary education, Sec = Secondary education or higher. Al = Alor, ST = Sumba Timur, LU = Luwu Utara, Ta = Takalar, Ba = Barru, Ja = Jayapura. Wealth 1 = Poorest, 2 = Poorer, 3 = Middle, 4 = Richer, 5 = Richest.
Mentions: The respondent’s education, the district the household was located in, household wealth, and access to water and sanitation were significantly associated with the behavior of handwashing with soap, and the calculated prevalence is presented in Figure 1. While over 58% of respondents with primary, pre-secondary, or secondary or higher education washed their hands with soap, only 43.5% of respondents with less than primary education washed their hands with soap. A large gap in the prevalence of handwashing with soap also existed between the six districts, ranging from 32.4% in Alor to 83.6% in Takalar. A positive curvilinear trend in the percentage of handwashing with soap was found for the quintiles of wealth. In the lowest wealth quintile, only 27.5% of respondents washed hands with soap, while 72.0% in the highest quintile performed handwashing with soap. Lastly, the majority of respondents, 58.2% and 59.5%, respectively, reported to have access to water and a private toilet washed their hands with soap.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households&rsquo; hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1) a desire to smell nice; (2) interpersonal influences; (3) the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4) key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

No MeSH data available.