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Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.


Smoke temperature distribution at eighth floor obtained by LES.
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ijerph-13-00861-f012: Smoke temperature distribution at eighth floor obtained by LES.

Mentions: Danger times caused by smoke temperature in corridors are evaluated as shown in Table 7 and we can see that the most dangerous floor is the fourth floor (6 m above the fire source) and the danger time in this floor is only 999 s. We can also see that the more distance away from the fourth floor (6 m above the fire source), the longer the danger times is. Meanwhile, smoke temperatures in enclosure 2# on the eighth floor exceed 600 °C at 1997 s as shown in Figure 12 and we can believe that there is flashover risk in this enclosure which is dangerous for firefighters [28,29]. A flashover is the near-simultaneous ignition of most of the directly exposed combustible material in an enclosed area. When certain organic materials are heated, they undergo thermal decomposition and release flammable gases. Flashover occurs when the majority of the exposed surfaces in a space are heated to their auto ignition temperature and emit flammable gases. Thus firefighters should note the flashover risk in external insulation materials fire rescue operations.


Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China
Smoke temperature distribution at eighth floor obtained by LES.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036694&req=5

ijerph-13-00861-f012: Smoke temperature distribution at eighth floor obtained by LES.
Mentions: Danger times caused by smoke temperature in corridors are evaluated as shown in Table 7 and we can see that the most dangerous floor is the fourth floor (6 m above the fire source) and the danger time in this floor is only 999 s. We can also see that the more distance away from the fourth floor (6 m above the fire source), the longer the danger times is. Meanwhile, smoke temperatures in enclosure 2# on the eighth floor exceed 600 °C at 1997 s as shown in Figure 12 and we can believe that there is flashover risk in this enclosure which is dangerous for firefighters [28,29]. A flashover is the near-simultaneous ignition of most of the directly exposed combustible material in an enclosed area. When certain organic materials are heated, they undergo thermal decomposition and release flammable gases. Flashover occurs when the majority of the exposed surfaces in a space are heated to their auto ignition temperature and emit flammable gases. Thus firefighters should note the flashover risk in external insulation materials fire rescue operations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.