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Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

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ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.


Flame spread in the vertical direction.
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ijerph-13-00861-f011: Flame spread in the vertical direction.

Mentions: From the simulation results, we find that the XPS external insulation materials are ignited by the ignition fire source (stated in Section 4.1), then fire spreads upward with an accelerated speed along the building’s exterior and spreads into enclosures through windows and a three-dimensional combustion fire of the whole building ocurrs, which is identical to a fire accident occurred in China as shown in Figure 9. We also find that the external insulation material fire spread in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction and it only takes 422 s for the flame front to reache the building roof and that the smoke temperature of the building’s exterior during the fire distributes non-homogeneously (the more distance away from the fire source, the higher the smoke temperature is, as shown in Figure 10) which indicates that the fire becomes more violent duringn the fire process. The flame spread in the vertical direction is shown in Figure 11. By fitting, we find that the relationship between the flame spread speed and time can be expressed as Equation (9),(9)s(t)=8.214×10−1e0.0085twhere s(t) is the flame front position (m) and t is time after ignition (s).


Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China
Flame spread in the vertical direction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036694&req=5

ijerph-13-00861-f011: Flame spread in the vertical direction.
Mentions: From the simulation results, we find that the XPS external insulation materials are ignited by the ignition fire source (stated in Section 4.1), then fire spreads upward with an accelerated speed along the building’s exterior and spreads into enclosures through windows and a three-dimensional combustion fire of the whole building ocurrs, which is identical to a fire accident occurred in China as shown in Figure 9. We also find that the external insulation material fire spread in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction and it only takes 422 s for the flame front to reache the building roof and that the smoke temperature of the building’s exterior during the fire distributes non-homogeneously (the more distance away from the fire source, the higher the smoke temperature is, as shown in Figure 10) which indicates that the fire becomes more violent duringn the fire process. The flame spread in the vertical direction is shown in Figure 11. By fitting, we find that the relationship between the flame spread speed and time can be expressed as Equation (9),(9)s(t)=8.214×10−1e0.0085twhere s(t) is the flame front position (m) and t is time after ignition (s).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.