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Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Upward flame in experiment; (b) Upward flame (>200 kW/m3) in FDS simulation.
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ijerph-13-00861-f006: (a) Upward flame in experiment; (b) Upward flame (>200 kW/m3) in FDS simulation.

Mentions: A medium-sized XPS fire experiment is conducted to validate the accuracy of our large eddy simulation on upward fire spread. The experimental sample, 110 cm (length) × 60 cm (width) × 4.5 cm (thickness), is hung in air as shown in Figure 5. Two high sensitivity K-thermocouples are placed in tiny grooves at the XPS panel surface to collect the surface temperatures and a weight sensor is used to record the mass loss rate of XPS panels during the whole experiment process. It is found that the flame spread rapidly with a ribbon burn pattern once the XPS panel is ignited and the vertical spread speed is faster than the horizontal spread speed as shown in Figure 6a.


Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China
(a) Upward flame in experiment; (b) Upward flame (>200 kW/m3) in FDS simulation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036694&req=5

ijerph-13-00861-f006: (a) Upward flame in experiment; (b) Upward flame (>200 kW/m3) in FDS simulation.
Mentions: A medium-sized XPS fire experiment is conducted to validate the accuracy of our large eddy simulation on upward fire spread. The experimental sample, 110 cm (length) × 60 cm (width) × 4.5 cm (thickness), is hung in air as shown in Figure 5. Two high sensitivity K-thermocouples are placed in tiny grooves at the XPS panel surface to collect the surface temperatures and a weight sensor is used to record the mass loss rate of XPS panels during the whole experiment process. It is found that the flame spread rapidly with a ribbon burn pattern once the XPS panel is ignited and the vertical spread speed is faster than the horizontal spread speed as shown in Figure 6a.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies.

No MeSH data available.