Limits...
Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of “not participate” = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of “low” = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32–0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of “tend to be careful” = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27–3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender.

No MeSH data available.


Study population.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036693&req=5

ijerph-13-00860-f001: Study population.

Mentions: This study was part of the Kurabuchi study [34,35,36] that has targeted all 1452 residents aged 65 years and older in Kurabuchi town (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan) since 2005. After the baseline health survey in 2005 was carried out, follow-up surveys were continued annually. In the follow-up 2010 survey, the item of social capital was included into the questionnaire. It is for this reason that we used the 2010 survey as a baseline data in the present study. In the 2010 survey, we excluded residents who had already experienced a decline in function (e.g., hospitalized, institutionalized, or eligible for long-term care insurance), and identified 1399 residents aged 65 years and older as eligible population; 1103 residents who were the participants of the 2005 survey, and 296 residents who became 65 years old after 2005 or had moved to Kurabuchi town after 2005. The postal questionnaire was distributed to each home of the eligible population and collected by trained nurses and local welfare workers with the cooperation of the town. Ten participants refused to respond, and valid response to a questionnaire on social capital were collected (1364 valid responses for social participation and 1357 valid responses for generalized trust, respectively). Of those, 1023 were not impaired on ADL as assessed by the Katz Index of ADL [37] and had valid responses for all covariate items. Follow-up ADL data were obtained from the annual survey until 2013. After excluding 39 individuals with invalid responses for follow-up ADL, 984 (96.2% of 1023) were analyzed (Figure 1).


Relationships of Community and Individual Level Social Capital with Activities of Daily Living and Death by Gender
Study population.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036693&req=5

ijerph-13-00860-f001: Study population.
Mentions: This study was part of the Kurabuchi study [34,35,36] that has targeted all 1452 residents aged 65 years and older in Kurabuchi town (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan) since 2005. After the baseline health survey in 2005 was carried out, follow-up surveys were continued annually. In the follow-up 2010 survey, the item of social capital was included into the questionnaire. It is for this reason that we used the 2010 survey as a baseline data in the present study. In the 2010 survey, we excluded residents who had already experienced a decline in function (e.g., hospitalized, institutionalized, or eligible for long-term care insurance), and identified 1399 residents aged 65 years and older as eligible population; 1103 residents who were the participants of the 2005 survey, and 296 residents who became 65 years old after 2005 or had moved to Kurabuchi town after 2005. The postal questionnaire was distributed to each home of the eligible population and collected by trained nurses and local welfare workers with the cooperation of the town. Ten participants refused to respond, and valid response to a questionnaire on social capital were collected (1364 valid responses for social participation and 1357 valid responses for generalized trust, respectively). Of those, 1023 were not impaired on ADL as assessed by the Katz Index of ADL [37] and had valid responses for all covariate items. Follow-up ADL data were obtained from the annual survey until 2013. After excluding 39 individuals with invalid responses for follow-up ADL, 984 (96.2% of 1023) were analyzed (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This study determined whether there is an association between social capital and a composite outcome of decline in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and death by gender. A prospective 3.5 year cohort study was conducted in a rural town in Japan. The study participants were 984 individuals aged 65 years and older with not impaired on ADL at 2010 baseline survey. Social participation and generalized trust were measured as social capital. The individual level responses were dichotomized and aggregated into the community level (eight areas). Multilevel logistic regression adjusting for covariates revealed that social participation at the individual level was significantly associated with higher odds of composite outcome (OR of “not participate” = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.38–2.81). Regarding generalized trust, only in men, there was an inverse association at the community level (OR of “low” = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32–0.96), and a positive association at the individual level (OR of “tend to be careful” = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.27–3.90). These results suggest that social capital were associated with a decline in ADL and death and that the association may differ by gender.

No MeSH data available.