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The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

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ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


CCA biplot for the relationships among plankton species composition and environmental variables.
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ijerph-13-00855-f008: CCA biplot for the relationships among plankton species composition and environmental variables.

Mentions: Copepod species T. kawamurai (Z3), C. vicinus (Z4), E. Serrulatus (Z6), M. leuckarti (Z7), S. tenellus (Z9), S. dorrii (Z10), Copepods nauplius (Z12) were distributed in the positive direction of axis 2, and their abundance was negatively correlated with phytoplankton evenness. However, T. hyalinus (Z1), T. taihokuensis (Z2) and E. speratus (Z8) were distributed in the fourth quadrant, and their abundance was primarily influenced by phytoplankton biomass (Figure 8). The biomasses of Cyanophyta species C. minutus (P15), M. incerta (P18), M. tenuissima (P20), M. sinica (P21), and L. limnetica (P22) had a weak positive relationship with phytoplankton evenness. In addition, phytoplankton evenness had positive relationships with the biomasses of Euglenophyta species D. acutum (P1), P. helicoides (P3), Bacillariophyta species F. capucina (P11). Chlorophyta species C. gracile (P26), S. dimorphus (P30) and C. tetrapedia (P31) had a negative relationship with phytoplankton evenness. Phytoplankton species richness was positively correlated with Euglenophyta species E. lucens (P2) and E. mutabilis (P4), Cyanophyta species O. princeps (P13) and O. tenuis (P14).


The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China
CCA biplot for the relationships among plankton species composition and environmental variables.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036688&req=5

ijerph-13-00855-f008: CCA biplot for the relationships among plankton species composition and environmental variables.
Mentions: Copepod species T. kawamurai (Z3), C. vicinus (Z4), E. Serrulatus (Z6), M. leuckarti (Z7), S. tenellus (Z9), S. dorrii (Z10), Copepods nauplius (Z12) were distributed in the positive direction of axis 2, and their abundance was negatively correlated with phytoplankton evenness. However, T. hyalinus (Z1), T. taihokuensis (Z2) and E. speratus (Z8) were distributed in the fourth quadrant, and their abundance was primarily influenced by phytoplankton biomass (Figure 8). The biomasses of Cyanophyta species C. minutus (P15), M. incerta (P18), M. tenuissima (P20), M. sinica (P21), and L. limnetica (P22) had a weak positive relationship with phytoplankton evenness. In addition, phytoplankton evenness had positive relationships with the biomasses of Euglenophyta species D. acutum (P1), P. helicoides (P3), Bacillariophyta species F. capucina (P11). Chlorophyta species C. gracile (P26), S. dimorphus (P30) and C. tetrapedia (P31) had a negative relationship with phytoplankton evenness. Phytoplankton species richness was positively correlated with Euglenophyta species E. lucens (P2) and E. mutabilis (P4), Cyanophyta species O. princeps (P13) and O. tenuis (P14).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.