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The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

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ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


PCA biplot of spatial distribution characters for plankton community in Lake Nansihu. S1 to S12 were standing for the 12 sample sites in the lake.
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ijerph-13-00855-f004: PCA biplot of spatial distribution characters for plankton community in Lake Nansihu. S1 to S12 were standing for the 12 sample sites in the lake.

Mentions: The results of the PCA for the first two components are presented in the biplot (Figure 4). The eigenvalues of the first two axes were 0.395 and 0.275, respectively, and the contribution of the first two principal components to the percentage of variance was 67.1%. The first principal component was primarily driven by both phytoplankton and copepods species, while the second principal component was primarily driven by Cyclotella, Synedra, Lyngbya, Closterium, Scenedesmus genera and some other Chllorophyta species. Sites 3 and 7 were similar in plankton composition and were distributed in the positive direction of the first principal component (Figure 4). Sites 4 and 5 were distributed within the second quadrant, and both had low copepods abundance and similar phytoplankton compositions (Figure 3). Site 8 was located within the third quadrant and the remaining sites were mainly distributed near the origin of the coordinates (Figure 4). Thus, there were apparent differences for plankton community composition among the 12 sites. However, plankton community composition did not show apparent latitudinal distribution.


The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China
PCA biplot of spatial distribution characters for plankton community in Lake Nansihu. S1 to S12 were standing for the 12 sample sites in the lake.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036688&req=5

ijerph-13-00855-f004: PCA biplot of spatial distribution characters for plankton community in Lake Nansihu. S1 to S12 were standing for the 12 sample sites in the lake.
Mentions: The results of the PCA for the first two components are presented in the biplot (Figure 4). The eigenvalues of the first two axes were 0.395 and 0.275, respectively, and the contribution of the first two principal components to the percentage of variance was 67.1%. The first principal component was primarily driven by both phytoplankton and copepods species, while the second principal component was primarily driven by Cyclotella, Synedra, Lyngbya, Closterium, Scenedesmus genera and some other Chllorophyta species. Sites 3 and 7 were similar in plankton composition and were distributed in the positive direction of the first principal component (Figure 4). Sites 4 and 5 were distributed within the second quadrant, and both had low copepods abundance and similar phytoplankton compositions (Figure 3). Site 8 was located within the third quadrant and the remaining sites were mainly distributed near the origin of the coordinates (Figure 4). Thus, there were apparent differences for plankton community composition among the 12 sites. However, plankton community composition did not show apparent latitudinal distribution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.