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The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

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ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.


Seasonal variations in (a) phytoplankton species richness; (b) phytoplankton evenness; (c) phytoplankton biomass; and (d) copepods abundance. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the 12 sample sites. Spr: spring, Sum: summer, Aut: autumn, Win: winter.
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ijerph-13-00855-f002: Seasonal variations in (a) phytoplankton species richness; (b) phytoplankton evenness; (c) phytoplankton biomass; and (d) copepods abundance. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the 12 sample sites. Spr: spring, Sum: summer, Aut: autumn, Win: winter.

Mentions: The mean values of phytoplankton species richness varied seasonally from 37.5 (winter 2012) to 55.8 (summer 2013), with annual maximum values in summer and minimum values in winter (Figure 2a). In different sample sites, phytoplankton species richness ranged between 22 and 88 with large seasonal standard deviations (varied between 7.29 and 12.96; Figure 2a). Phytoplankton evenness was high with mean values ranging between 0.74 (spring 2014) and 0.87 (summer 2013; Figure 2b). Variation in phytoplankton evenness was irregular and sometimes significant between adjacent seasons (e.g., in 2012 mean phytoplankton evenness ranged from 0.85 in summer to 0.75 in autumn; Figure 2b).


The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China
Seasonal variations in (a) phytoplankton species richness; (b) phytoplankton evenness; (c) phytoplankton biomass; and (d) copepods abundance. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the 12 sample sites. Spr: spring, Sum: summer, Aut: autumn, Win: winter.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036688&req=5

ijerph-13-00855-f002: Seasonal variations in (a) phytoplankton species richness; (b) phytoplankton evenness; (c) phytoplankton biomass; and (d) copepods abundance. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the 12 sample sites. Spr: spring, Sum: summer, Aut: autumn, Win: winter.
Mentions: The mean values of phytoplankton species richness varied seasonally from 37.5 (winter 2012) to 55.8 (summer 2013), with annual maximum values in summer and minimum values in winter (Figure 2a). In different sample sites, phytoplankton species richness ranged between 22 and 88 with large seasonal standard deviations (varied between 7.29 and 12.96; Figure 2a). Phytoplankton evenness was high with mean values ranging between 0.74 (spring 2014) and 0.87 (summer 2013; Figure 2b). Variation in phytoplankton evenness was irregular and sometimes significant between adjacent seasons (e.g., in 2012 mean phytoplankton evenness ranged from 0.85 in summer to 0.75 in autumn; Figure 2b).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

No MeSH data available.