Limits...
Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more accurately assess exposure scenarios and health risks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Arsenic, barium, and vanadium levels (mg/kg) in samples collected from Gulf Island State Park (GISP) and from Gulf Island Beach (GIB).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036686&req=5

ijerph-13-00853-f001: Arsenic, barium, and vanadium levels (mg/kg) in samples collected from Gulf Island State Park (GISP) and from Gulf Island Beach (GIB).

Mentions: Metals results for samples collected from GISP and GIB show that among the three metals, only arsenic exceeded the SCTL (Figure 1). Five of the eight sediment samples exceeded the residential arsenic SCTL. The sample showing the highest arsenic value was GISP-Intertidal (targeted), meaning it was found in visibly stained sand in the Grand Isle State Park intertidal zone. This sample was above the commercial SCTL and also contained the highest level of barium, although the barium measured below the SCTLs. Of interest was the metal composition of the tar sample showing elevated levels of vanadium, although below the residential SCTL. The targeted dune sample from GIB also had higher vanadium levels relative to other sediment samples.


Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals
Arsenic, barium, and vanadium levels (mg/kg) in samples collected from Gulf Island State Park (GISP) and from Gulf Island Beach (GIB).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036686&req=5

ijerph-13-00853-f001: Arsenic, barium, and vanadium levels (mg/kg) in samples collected from Gulf Island State Park (GISP) and from Gulf Island Beach (GIB).
Mentions: Metals results for samples collected from GISP and GIB show that among the three metals, only arsenic exceeded the SCTL (Figure 1). Five of the eight sediment samples exceeded the residential arsenic SCTL. The sample showing the highest arsenic value was GISP-Intertidal (targeted), meaning it was found in visibly stained sand in the Grand Isle State Park intertidal zone. This sample was above the commercial SCTL and also contained the highest level of barium, although the barium measured below the SCTLs. Of interest was the metal composition of the tar sample showing elevated levels of vanadium, although below the residential SCTL. The targeted dune sample from GIB also had higher vanadium levels relative to other sediment samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are necessary to more accurately assess exposure scenarios and health risks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus